With the development of national economy, the electric undertaking increases rapidly, the installed capacity and scale of electric wire netting increase day by day, but the constant improvement of requirement of * of people’s operation of the apparatus to the power system, in modern electric operation and maintenance of apparatus, electric voltage transformer most important and most expensive apparatus under power system not merely, and one of the apparatus causing the accident of the power system to occur frequentlies, its trouble may cause great danger and influence to power system and user. So has been measuring the electric voltage transformer online and diagnosing all the time technology regards as the important scientific research brainstorm project outside China, most technology that uses have part discharge law now, and 譜’s analytic approach of oil color of voltage transformer,etc..
The voltage transformer monitors and studies the current situation online
A voltage transformer part discharges PD Monitor online
1.Principle: The main reason of the trouble of the voltage transformer is insulating damaged, there is part that discharged and emerged before the trouble, and follow the following signals: The electric current pulse, electric wave, supersonic wave, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CH4, H2, CO,etc. gas, optical signal, the electromagnetic wave of ultra-high frequency. Measure above-mentioned five kinds of signals, can confirm the severity that the part discharges within the voltage transformer. So someone study the monitoring capitals of five kinds of signals. In these detection methods, electric current pulse law is the most sensitive. But the interference of the electric signal of scene of transformer substation is bigger, so adopt the regular electric current pulse law, it is very difficult to carry on measurement. The gas analytic approach is interfered with less live in ultrasonic law and oil, but the ultrasonic law is low in sensitivity, hide in insulation internal discharging and often measuring deeply as to those. It is obtained through the way that the pulse signal of the electric current touch off the time-recorder that at the same time to prolong at the time of the spread of the ultrasonic signal. While using at the scene, the pulse electric current signal that the part discharges and produces, often flood in Yu Gao’s interference pulse but unable to distinguish, it is difficult to touch off the time-recorder to work, thus cause the monitoring system to make the wrong judgement.
2.Method: 1The dynamic equilibrium law of difference: Relatively enter two signals of the measuring system, one comes from some neutral sensors, another one comes from the core earthing sensor of the voltage transformer. The signal the part emerges to discharge within the voltage transformer, it is on neutral some and core earthing sensor of voltage transformer, produce two pieces of electric current pulse in opposite direction. When and the interfering signal exists on the outside of voltage transformer, the electric current pulse direction that he produces on these two sensors is the same, chosen the frequency appropriately, compare these two electric signals and can inhibit the corona interference. 2Supersonic wave measures the law: Utilize the ultrasonic sensor, the acoustical signal of emerging that measure the part to discharge on the outer cover of voltage transformer. On one hand when the part takes place to discharge within the voltage transformer, electric current pulse signals produced are measured to, on the other hand several ultrasonic sensors distributed on the fuel tank wall will be measured to the acoustic signal too. But it delays a certain time more than the electric pulse, according to this delay time, the distance that can confirm the sensor and discharge to happen between some, thus confirm the position that discharges and clicks. 3The electricity orients the law: Utilize direction and time that supersonic wave propagate and discharge transmission course of pulse in winding come, confirm, discharge to orientate method position.
Dissolve the gas DGA in two voltage transformer oil Monitor online
By dissolving the gas gaseous phase chromatogram and analysing and judging the trouble within the voltage transformer in the oil:
1.Principle: The main insulating material is voltage transformer oil and insulating oil paper in the electric voltage transformer of oil immersion. These two kinds of materials will decompose and produce various gas under discharging and heat function. And the phenomenon that and the part discharge that some and overheated that the trouble is all accompanied by within the voltage transformer, make the oil, paper or oil and paper decompose and produce C2H2, gas such as C2H4, C2H6, CH4, H2, CO and CO2. Not when the trouble is not very serious, tolerances are less that produces, the gas produced is dissolved in the insulating oil mostly. In addition, it is different from severity discharging to generate heat, the density dissolved the gas, proportionate relationships of different gas are different. So until gas that dissolve carry on the intersection of gaseous phase and chromatogram analyze, can find generating heat and discharging trouble inside the voltage transformer in the oil.
2.Method and development
1Generally adopt the regular gaseous phase chromatograph to carry on the oil rate of the voltage transformer and dissolve examining the side regularly of gas, namely test personnel to the transformer substation to collect and deviate from the gas partly to run into entering one kind of mouths of the gaseous phase chromatograph, measure with the gaseous phase chromatograph, output the result, compare the result with standard and judge finally.
2People have to study the online monitoring device improving innovation on the principle structure to some extent. In dissolving the research of the online monitoring device of gas in the voltage transformer oil, what people thought of at first is to improve in the oil gas is separated, adopt, make the intersection of gas and the intersection of macromolecule and ventilative membrane that member adopt make up the oil gas and separate the unit only for this reason, thus has not merely simplified the structure of the gas automatic analysis device in the oil greatly, and realized and monitored online.
3In order to overcome the tedious and complicated operation procedure of the regular oil chromatogram analytic approach, people develop the intersection of gas and automatic the intersection of analysis and device produce oil, analysis instrument take off angry and the intersection of gas and density measure, locate in the placing point of the voltage transformer by two parts namely regular chromatogram, realize automation technically to analyze, obviously, this kind of oil chromatogram automation analyzes the function of the device is the same as regular chromatogram analytic approach, have not improved at all on the structure, has realized automatically on the operation procedure, have limited its popularization application prospect from technological economy.
4The gas is measured and improved on the unit, it is unnecessary the complicated chromatograph, and measure to the gas of separation with the angry quick sensor. Because the sensitivity of the angry quick sensor relates to valuable metal added, it is still very difficult to make sure a kind of angry quick sensor has the same sensitivities to many kinds of gas on crafts, so, it is the hydrogen amount monitored in the voltage transformer oil that people study the successful online monitoring device at first. How because of the trouble kind within no matter voltage transformer, the hydrogen is that the trouble produced one of the main components of the gas, can judge whether the voltage transformer is unusual when monitoring the hydrogen quantity in the the oil online, then further judge trouble kind and intensity by regular chromatogram analytic approach, so, though this kind can only judge unusually that can’t diagnose the online monitoring device function of the trouble kind is limited, but used widely because it has entered one step more than regular chromatogram law.
The voltage transformer monitors development trend of research and research direction online
First. On the instrument: Develop optical device share out bonus the intersection of gas and analysor, infrared gas to can measure many kinds of the intersection of gas and content in characteristic of analysor. It is wide to measure the range, the high precision of the sensitivity is high, respond to it fast, the alternative is good but * is high, longe-lived, can realize that analyze and automatically control continuously. The operation principle of the infrared gas analysor is because of sucking the luminosity law I.amhert-Beer law ,Can divide into at physical characteristic no matter be getting smooth, assign light type, Fu, set up infrared leaf FTIR, Fourier Transform InfraRed Type and not electric because of computer to be systematic MEMS Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Miniature infrared gas analysor of technology. Divide getting all infrared gas to utilize, divide all to tell homogeneous light in continuous infrared table that light source send out while being systematic in analysor, absorb the spectrum identically and determine through wavelength of infrared ray and characteristic of the component examined of the medium floor. No matter mere type infrared gas analysor NDIR Mean continuous infrared tables that the light source sends out all through containing the gas floor of the mist examined of fixed thickness. Because is different the content of examining the gas, the energy of absorbing fixed infrared ray is different.
Two. On the theory tool: Fuzzy theory, the neural network of manpower, there is application in the analysis of DGA in expert systems and ashy theories.
The voltage transformer is as generating to the important apparatus in the switchyard system, the necessity of installing online monitoring system has already become the common understanding of the power industry gradually, the working efficiency of the electric voltage transformer has represented the financial income of the electric department, to monitor, can improve run * online voltage transformer, delay, maintain input of expenses, having lengthened time between overhauls and life-span of voltage transformer, therefore the economic benefits brought are very considerable. The online monitoring technology of the electric apparatus is the developing direction in the future, will have broad prospects.
Computer continue to examine what content does it should include live electric protector?
A: The computer continues the electric protector and examines and should do the following several content live:
1Measurement is insulating.
2Test, against turning into the power draw and shut the direct electric current, the direct current is pressed, should be able to work normally against turning into power and computer and continuing the electric protector while rising slowly, dropping slowly .
3Whether the procedure of test solidification is correct.
4Precision and balanced degree of the test data collecting system
5Test switch quantity imports and exports the return circuit.
6Test definite value form.
7Exactly organize and test.
8Examine with once electric current and working voltage.
Question that should be paid attention to in the trough installation of intensive insulating bus bar
The intensive insulating bus bar trough has small, compact, ~s advantages of transmitting the electric current greatly, safely, maintains and conveniently etc.. Have already used in the low-voltage distribution device of enterprises extensively. Find because of the intersection of factory and product specification being dull it installs operation instructions to be too reason simple and inconsiderate in designing in management of construction, often cause and install the difficulty live. Following on discuss problem that should notice in the several installation from voltage transformer to low-voltage intensive insulating the intersection of bus bar and trough of switch board, consult when being for constructing.
1. Connection of the bus bar trough
Connection of the injecting bus bar trough. The connection which mother arranges, the apparatus insulates, is able to bear the electric arc, fire-retardant insulating board of high strength and connect the attachment high, fasten with the bolt with insulating sleeve. According to standardizing the requirement, in order to meet joining the area of the bus bar, the chink between bolt hole and bolt is relatively small, increase the insulating sleeve because of the trough bolt of bus bar, make the chink narrower. So when the main mother of two sections of bus bars trough arranges the connection, two sections of generatrix axis should keep on the line in a centre strictly, make two bus bar mother of trough arrange and insulating bolt hole of board totally align, when being tight on putting on the bolt, each bolt should be exerted oneself evenly sequentially. This purpose is for preventing the insulating sleeve on the bolt prevents from the function of shearing strength and results in damaging in installation. I have found in management of construction of the project several gets up because the bolt insulating sleeve is damaged and cause the insulating situation that reduces of the bus bar trough by strength. The earth connection can accord with the earthing requirement while adopting the bus bar shell, but when the outer covers of bus bar all adopt spraying to deal with, must use two sections of bus bars trough the earthing bolted joint with the wire. Bus bar trough reply it, carry on insulating to check before installation and after the installation, go on, check, install quality problem cause bus bar trough insulating to lower relatively.
2.Fixed way of the bus bar trough of the voltage transformer room
The bus bar trough offered on factory’s sample generally adopts the round steel to hoist, the fixing that this way is used in the bus bar trough of the voltage transformer room is not appropriate, because this kind of hoist and mount fixing is ” Flexibility ” Fixed, it can only hang the bus bar trough to make it unable to move up and down, but as the bus bar trough is not being installed when twist the stress or are shorted out the influencing of electric power by the bus baring, the bus bar trough has to the possibility of rocking aboutly and upwards, this will cause the damage or telescopic root rubber of the voltage transformer linked with bus bar trough with telescopic low pressure to seal and enclose oozing the oil of the place.
3. The bus bar trough one is waterproof
The bus bar trough generally designs and uses in the room, the humidity in the air will not cause influence on the operation of the bus bar trough, but the bus bar trough enters water in using, certainly will cause insulatingly to reduce, it will cause the short circuit to run for a long time, burn the bus bar trough. So for causing the bus bar trough to take the essential safeguard procedures while entering the installation way of water. For instance caused the water accumulation of the floor by all sorts of reasons such as production or roofing seepage when the bus bar trough is passed through and embrace storey, will obey the bus bar trough which passes through the floor to leak, cause the bus bar trough to enter water, insulate bus bar trough to reduce. The acrylic fibres device of our factory gets the bus bar trough of the workshop together after putting into operation, the short circuit troubles together caused by the fact that the bus bar trough enter water when pass through the floor have taken place, have caused the whole parking accident which produces the device. Set up the waterproof coffer when the method to solve is the floor passed through in the bus bar trough
Make the intersection of bus bar and trough and voltage transformer make transition, connect with flexible section already, adopt the intersection of bus bar and trough enter line as low pressure main the intersection of bus bar and electric current generally relatively large, some have already reached 2500A, the corresponding flexible festival section is greater, the elasticity is relatively little, may still force low pressure set of voltage transformer. So, propose trough adopting and fixed way illustrated in Fig. 3 of bus bar of voltage transformer room. Hold and hold under the bus bar trough with the channel support, make bag hoop and fix the bus bar trough on channel support with the round steel, the support end of channel is connected with burying one with the bolt in advance on wall on both sides of voltage transformer room. In this way, ” rigidity ” of the channel support Fixed and flexible festival ” Flexibility ” Connect and mix completely, ” it is helped that the steel is gentle ” Have guaranteed the voltage transformer low sleeve pipe is unlikely to be damaged by strength.
To the mutual inductor now ‘ Voltage mutual inductor and electric current mutual inductor Common trouble and treating method analyze while running, engineers and technicians can consult this text, according to the detailed conditions of the accident of these apparatus, go on and analyse and process, by ensuring the safe operation of the power consuming apparatus, reduce the influence that the accident causes, prevent trouble before it happens as much as possible, eliminate the accident in the bud.
Call high pressure while being the above-mentioned in 250 according to the intersection of rules and assigned voltage, here we to say 10 plant mainly, that is to say switch cupboard, measuring the cupboard, electric capacity cupboard,etc., certainly also include passing in and out line and voltage transformer,etc..
1.Voltage mutual inductor
Symptom: Once side fuse wire of voltage mutual inductor while running fuses.
1Voltage device take place among the circle inside the sense device, layer or short out and one phase the intersection of earthing,etc. and trouble alternatively, may all cause the fuse wire to fuse.
2Two return circuit troubles, at the time of two side troubles of only mutual inductor two side fuse wire apolegamies and cause side melting device once to fuse too big.
3Earthing 10 kilovolts of unified lookses. At the time of earthing system of 10 kilovolts and a phase, the other double-phase one raises the triple of the radical sign to the ground voltage, as to the intersection of voltage and mutual inductor that Y0/Y0 wire, his two normal the voltage will be become line voltage relatively, because the voltage is raised to cause the electric current to increase, may fuse the fuse wire.
4The ferromagnetic resonance takes place in the power system. Because distribution line, cable and user increase in a large amount in recent years, have brought about very great change in electric parameter of distribution system of 10 kilovolts, has formed the harmonic condition gradually, in addition some mutual inductor excitation characteristic bad voltage, so ferromagnetic harmonic voltage take place often, will produce the electric current on the voltage mutual inductor at the time of the resonance of the power system, besides causing side fuse wire once brokenly, still cause the voltage mutual inductor to burn the accident frequently.
Analyse and process: Melt and bring up the rear as happening once side fuse wire of voltage mutual inductor, should pull open the voltage mutual inductor and isolate the switch, and take down insurance two times, check whether to fuse, after getting rid of own trouble of mutual inductor of the voltage or two troubles, can change the qualified fuse wire and put the voltage mutual inductor into operation again.
2.Mutual inductor of the electric current
Symptom: The mutual inductor of the electric current appears while running because the core is overheated.
Analyse and process: The intersection of inductance and mutual inductor run, cross load, two open circuit, and insulating to damage and happen, discharge phenomenon,etc. under the situation, will all cause the sound to be unusual, cause some corona because the semi-conductive paint can not be applied paint with a brush evenly, and the screw which clamp the core is loose, will cause greater noise.
Electric current mutual inductor core may pass, load for a long time while being overheated and two return circuit open a way, cause the intersection of core and magnetic saturation and cause.
Such as finding the above-mentioned anomaly, should observe carefully at first, and point out etc. and judge causing the sound to be unusual or the reason the core is overheated through the instrument, cross, load cause, should adopt, reduce load, observe it to run under the specified value. If return circuit two times causes, should stop running or reduce load to the minimum limit immediately ,Deal with the course and take the essential safety measure in order to prevent getting an electric shock. If because it is insulating to destroy to cause discharging, should change.
The poisonous gas detector can examine the gas tabulation Health of Germany of U.S.A. Detcon The electrochemical detector of poisonous gas of the company designs the detection used for monitoring many kinds of poisonous gas existing in the ambient air. It is in the field of business and leading that the detector of Detcon Company can measure the kind of the poisonous gas and broadness of the testing range. Electric chemical reaction type that this kind of detector is three electrodes. Every sensor have one electrolyze liquid, react room, three electrode locate, electrolyze in the liquid spreading under the membrane in one gas bag. Through changing or it is with liquid composition composition electrode can sensitivity against sensor and to if you can’t examine into gas, make exactly. Sensor this general working life in the above-mentioned two years under most the intersection of industry and broken border. This sensor technology offers the anti-blast device of three kinds of different characteristics series DM-400IS, series DM-500IS, and series DM-600IS ,In addition, Detcon Company has series DM-200 that single security is extremely high. Enclose the gas tabulation that can be examined as follows, would like to ask the masses of users to choose, there is no gas which you need to measure such as the tabulation, please send a telegram here to inquire about: 0573-83911600! We will sincerely offer best services to you with energetic enthusiasm!
Order guide Choose serial codes 4, 5 or 6 first And substitute the code chosen in the table below ” # ” . For example, if the one that chose is the hydrogen sensors of sulfide of series 600, serial codes are ” 6 ” . Serial introductions4DM-400IS poisonous gas sensor always becomes that takes linear 4-20MA to export 5DM-500IS MicroSafe technology, the noiseless poisonous gas sensor always becomes that takes linear 4-20MA to export, the tape reveals 6 DM-600IS MicroSafe technology, the noiseless poisonous gas sensor always becomes that takes linear 4-20MA to export, RS-485 exports and takes 3 alarm and continues the electric apparatus, the tape reveals Measure the gas table Type Gas and molecular formula Measure the range Response time Working temperature Quality duration of insurance DM-#00IS-C2H3OC2H3O0-100ppmT90 <140?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-C2H2?? C2H20-100ppmT90<140?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-C3H3N??? C3H3N0-100ppmT90<140?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-NH3?? NH30-100ppmT90<60?-20??40?2?DM-#00IS-AsH3? AsH30-1ppmT90<60?-20??40?1.5?DM-#00IS-Br2?? Br20-5ppmT90<60?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-C4H6??? C4H60-100ppmT90<140?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-CS2???? CS20-100ppmT90<140?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-CO???? CO0-100ppmT90=30?-20??50?3?DM-#00IS-COS???? COS0-100ppmT90<140?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-Cl2?? Cl20-10ppmT90<60?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-ClO2???? ClO20-1ppmT90<60?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-B2H6??? B2H60-5ppmT90<60?-20??40?1.5?DM-#00IS-C2H6S????? C2H6S0-100ppmT90<140?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-C3H5OCl??? C3H5OCl0-100ppmT90<140?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-C2H5OH?? C2H5OH0-100ppmT90<140?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-C2H5SH??? C2H5SH0-100ppmT90<45?-40??50?2?DM-#00IS-C2H4?? C2H40-100ppmT90<140?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-C2H4O???? C2H4O0-100ppmT90<140?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-F2?? F20-1ppmT90<80?-10??40?1.5?DM-#00IS-CH2O?? CH2O0-100ppmT90<140?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-GeH4??GeH40-2ppmT90<60?-20??40?1.5?DM-#00IS-N2H4? N2H40-1ppmT90<120?-10??40?1?DM-#00IS-H2?? H2ppm0-100ppmT90=30?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-H2??H2LELLELT90<60?-40??40?2?DM-#00IS-H2?? H21%0-1%T90<60?-40??40?2?DM-#00IS-HBr??? HBr0-30ppmT90<70?-20??40?1.5?DM-#00IS-HCl??? HCl0-30ppmT90<70?-20??40?1.5?DM-#00IS-HCN??? HCN0-30ppmT90<40?-40??40?2?DM-#00IS-HF??? HF0-10ppmT90<90?-20??35?1.5?DM-#00IS-H2S??? H2S0-100ppmT90=30?-40??50?2?DM-#00IS-CH3OH?? CH3OH0-100ppmT90<140?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-CH3SH??? CH3SH0-100ppmT90<45?-40??50?2?DM-#00IS-NO???? NO0-100ppmT90=10?-20??50?3?DM-#00IS-N02???? NO20-10ppmT90<40?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-O3?? O30-1ppmT90<120?-10??40?2?DM-#00IS-COCl2??? COCl20-1ppmT90<120?-20??40?1.5?DM-#00IS-PH3??? PH30-5ppmT90<30?-20??40?1.5?DM-#00IS-SIH4?? SiH40-50ppmT90<60?-20??40?1.5?DM-#00IS-SO2???? SO20-20ppmT90=20?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-C4H8S???? C4H8S0-100ppmT90<30?-10??40?2?DM-#00IS-C4H4S??? C4hH4S0-100ppmT90<140?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-C6H5CH3?? C6H5CH30-100ppmT90<140?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-C4H6O2????? C4H6O20-100ppmT90<140?-20??50?2?DM-#00IS-C2H3Cl??? C2H3Cl0-100ppmT90<140?-20??50?2?
According to statistics: With the enlargement of China wind energy market, the manufacturing industry of the air blower enters high-speed development period gradually. Numerous manufacturing companies begin to enter China wind energy market outside China. Except the money of Xinjiang of already large-scale production wind, the enterprises that will found the factory in China soon are no less than ten, including international wind-powered electricity giants such as Vestas, GE, Gamesa,etc., while there are state-run large-scale enterprises such as heavy-duty industrial group, eastern steam turbine factory, industrial companies, Harbin electrical machinery plants of Wanyuan, Beijing, Harbin plane group of Dalian,etc.. Some enterprise situations are as follows:
Heavy worker’s jack-up group Co., Ltd. of Dalian plans to utilize geographical advantage and enterprise to already have advantage development air blower manufacturing industries of production capacity. This group has already bought Germany Fuhelander1.5 megawatt MD70 and Model MD77 wind-force generating set complete machine to design, and invest a huge sum of money and part manufacturer to jointly develop the megawatt-class air blower part, plan to produce 100 wind-force of 1.5 megawatts generating set in 2006, main users will be the group of Huaneng Group.
Industrial company and Spain of Wanyuan of Beijing that the Chinese rocket carries under the research institute receive tiles and draw the energy water and electricity group company EHN The fast wind-powered electricity apparatus Manufacturing Co., Ltd is fitted to establish Nantong spaceflight Wanyuan of Jiangsu jointly, produce 1.5 megawatts of EHN70 and Model EHN77 wind-force generating set. This co-partnership company would erect 33 typhoon strength generating sets in June of 2006.
The eastern steam turbine factory is one of three major steam turbine manufacture bases 100 tops of the mechanical industry and China, this factory buys Germany Repower1.5 megawatt MD70 and Model MD77 wind-force generating set complete machine to design, have already obtained the order for seven first batch of typhoon strength generating sets of Shandong Lueng Group Corporation.
Unite and create the group to plan to invest RMB 640 million to develop field of 3 megawatts of maritime wind in Harbin, adopt and drive the magneto forever directly too. 3 megawatts of low-speed electrical machineries are the huge monster, it is the effective method which reduces the generator weight to improve a rotational speed of wind. Have united and achieved the group and already reached potential cooperation intention, develops high sharp speed ratio, 3 megawatts of wind wheel of the low solidity cooperatively with riel science and technology.
The money of Xinjiang wind buys Germany Vensys62, 1.2 megawatts of models, and improve and design by oneself, has already installed and combined test with first prototype of a machine. Because the generator of its introduction is relatively large in surplus, totally suitable for 1.5 megawatts of air blowers, the gold wind company has purposes and riel science and technology that develop 1.5 megawatts of wind wheel cooperatively, adopt the wooden composite material blade and strive to reach higher sharp speed ratio and rotational speed, this kind of design is that other blade manufacturers are different to realize in China. The gold wind is in technological group and good trade reputation with power of China, there is field of wind oneself at the same time, the development prospect is considerable.
The above-mentioned five companies all put into enormously the manufacturing industry of the air blower, buy in the major technology in Europe or develop from different channels by oneself, good manufacturing industry foundation ensures the construction of the group, good trade relation ensures the anaphase market, but is seeking the supply of the blade.
The blade is a key part of the wind-driven generator, the fabrication cost accounts for 1/4 to 1/3 of the whole apparatus. It is only boat favor in Tianjin LM and Wuxi that China makes and sells the factory of the blade to make room two. Like most blade manufacturing industries in the world, these two adopt the production technology taking glass fibre reinforced plastic as main structural body. LM is mainly oneself such as GE no the blade maker large-scale customer of Europe offers 1.5 megawatts of blades, the annual output can reach one hundred sets of blades, the production in Tianjin has already proned to the saturation at present, it is very difficult to guarantee the anaphase and large-scale order of manufacturing company of the above-mentioned air blowers. China’s boat favor rises and mainly offers 660 kilowatts and 750 kilowatts blade for gold wind, is developing 1.3 megawatts and 1.5 megawatts blade, 2004 produces blade about 40,000 kilowatts of installation per year. Vestas and Gamesa planned to found the factory in China recently, but only offered the blade for oneself. China plans over 3 million kilowatts of strength generating set of the new clothes in the following four years, but factory of the above several blades can offer only several hundred sets blades altogether every year, can install about hundreds of thousands kilowatts. Though the boat favor rises and prepares to extend in LM and Wuxi, will be difficult to meet market’s demands in the near future. In addition, research institute binds the glass fibre reinforced plastic in Shanghai with advanced designing technique in foreign countries, plan to enter industry of wind energy.
In addition, according to international market, still have greater market demand. For example U.S.A. plans 5 million kilowatts of installation in the following two years, Japan and Australia have markets equal to China’s scale to plan. Because after the blade which China produces transports to the west coast of U.S.A., still cheaper than the blade that is produced in U.S.A.. So based on Chinese market, the company products can also be expanded to the overseas market.
Tenth, influence the factor analysis of prices
It is generally acknowledged the factor influencing technological value mainly has the following several respect:
1,Advance of technology and influence to technological products
The eighties of last century, founder of European composite material blade industry, Britain riel Chairman and concurrently cheif technology officer JimPlatts professor of Science Technologies Co., Ltd. have established the wooden composite material blade production base on British White island now, regard Finnish birch composite material as the main material and make the blade of the wind-driven generator, and success obtained. Through the production practices of more than 20 years, this industrial base accumulated the abundant production technology experience, and record and put these experiences in order into a whole set of production technology files.
In 2004, riel science and technology began to survey and study the Chinese native material suitable to be the blade main material of wind-driven generator. Through the comparison of generous test data in 2 years, find in all materials, the only material that has higher mechanics performance and with better cost performance than the Finnish birch is the mao bamboo of China. So, riel science and technology determines to utilize bamboo quality composite material to replace the Finnish birch composite material and produce the blade of the wind-driven generator finally, and carried on more detailed test test to the mao bamboo under help of international bamboo rattan network center and large village floor company. Now, test and processing abundant integration that the manufacturing process of the wooden composite material wind-driven generator blade has already selected suitable materials with bamboo timber, become composite material wind-driven generator production technology of bamboo quality finally.
The committee estimates technology including designing technique, production technology, raw materials technological requirement and tests technology, carry throughout production.
2,Monopoly and competition of technology
The bamboo quality composite material wind-driven generator blade is still initiated in the world, never any group or individual has introduced the production of the blade of the wind-driven generator of the bamboo timber before this. Other organizations do not know the above-mentioned technology at present.
3,Performance of technology
Compared with traditional manufacturing technology, the composite material air blower blade manufacturing technology has reduced the intensive intensity of fund of starting industry, have raised production efficiency, has improved the cost performance of the products. And, adopt the timber as the main structural material and reduce and produce energy consumption greatly, make the wind-driven generator accord with the requirement for environment protection further.
Riel science and technology proves through scientific research and experimental test of the past two years the Chinese mao bamboo is superior to producing the wind-driven generator resin to strengthen the Finnish birch which compounds the wooden paddle. Compared with existing wooden material and glass fibre material, the mao bamboo bamboo timber in the country has better performance in the following key parameter: It is tensile intensity / density ‘ it draw it is dense than , it is compressed intensity / density ‘ dense without being pigeonholed than , the modulus of elasticity / density, resisting fatigue performance. The introduction of the bamboo quality at the same time composite material can reduce the consumption of the carbon fiber of costing an arm and a leg in a large amount, thus the manufacturing cost which has reduced the blade of the wind-driven generator greatly. Unless in addition, compared with timber,have bamboo timber it produce finer cost performance, energy consumption than and growth speed getting faster, so can further raise the performance-cost ratio of the wind oar.
4,Ripeness of technology
Production technology file of wooden composite material wind-driven generator blade that riel science and technology has, one the intersection of production technology and accumulation of experience to produce 20 year such as industry, detailed the intersection of record and the intersection of production technology and course of progressing this at the same time. Vestas still continues to use original technology to produce on White island, and plan to produce wooden blade one in China according to this now, have further explained maturity and advance of this technology.
5,Protective measure and effective intensity of technology
Technology protects and goes on from three respects: Agreement of signing the secret agreement with key personnel of technological group and leaving office non-competingly; Improving the design and fabrication technology constantly, and is developing the new technology constantly. Plan to apply for the registration of the patent for invention, protect the key technology of the products.
6,Economic life cycle of technology
The economic life of technology is mainly influenced by time of appearance of substitute technology. And consult the wind-power electricity generation expert’s opinion according to the appraiser and relevant technical staff’s numerous discussions of riel science and technology, thought the earning capacity of this technology in about 10. It is 10 years to assess us and fetch their economic life this time, namely from 2006 to 2015.
SF6 specialized gas mask uses and keeps 1, SF6 specialized gas mask and recommends 1.1 SF6 specialized gas mask to sum up the place of production: Italian SF6 specialized gas mask covers the filtering gas mask in an all-round way in order to strain the pot type only, it is the apparatus of personal protection, specially install for engaged in SF6 electric equipment, debugging, test of running etc., overhaul personnel’s respiratory apparatus, catabolite hydrogen Fluorine acid, sulfur dioxide, low fluoride,etc. poisonous, harmful substance one that eyes and facial skin avoid in SF6 high-pressure electric apparatus injure, reach the effective shelter. This mask from face guard, if you can’t if you can’t strain and be killed with poison, irritate, make up. The face guard can be irritated and linked using with straining the poison directly. Its principle of gas defense is: When personnel inhale, the poisonous gas enters human respiratory system through the face guard after filtering the poison to irritate and purify. SF6 specialized gas mask face makes up: Covering the body was pressed by the rubbery whole membrane, the face guard closely fitted the frame and adopted the sideband of reflection, there is certain fox’s shape, forms the tube of the similar air cushion while wearing, in order to guarantee that it is comfortable and kind and dense to wear under various service conditions. Stereoscopic bandeau type structure, head links are flexible and reliable, can adjust freely according to the user’s head type, meet demands of various persons who wear. Eyes window adopt high the intersection of printing opacity and polyurethane loud lens of rate, have broad visual field and good visual performance. Face guard install inside block water, put on and stop, go back valve while being unidirectional, stop, answer the valve shut off while being unidirectional inhale, the moist gas breathed out is exhaled the valve is discharged, cover the function of the valve and stop going back unidirectionally because of blocking water, guaranteed to suck and breathe out the distributary of the air current, prevented the lens from hazing and forming the frost at the same time, have improved and protected bright performance. Breathe communication, collect, exhale the intersection of valve and slice, inhale the intersection of valve and block, communication in an organic whole, compact, can dismantle, easy to clear up the booty or change, the communication spreads the sound clearly.1.3 SF6 specialized gas mask filter filter outer cover made of metal material, the pot installs purpose-built activated carbon and compound adsorbent of F-03 molecule inside, also contain network board, gauze, wool,etc., can absorb the intersection of hydrogen and the intersection of Fluorine and acid, sulfur dioxide, the intersection of fluoride and the intersection of sulphur and acyl, ten the intersection of Fluorine and two the intersection of sulphur and the intersection of one oxygen, dust,etc. and poisonous harmful substance effectively, achieve the goal of purifying. 1.4 The service condition of the gas mask is that SF6 specialized gas mask uses and keeps the 1.4.1: The oxygen gas density is not lower than 18% in the air, the ambient temperature is – 30 45 ℃, the environment for use is poisoned the gas and accumulates the density and is not higher than 05%. 1.4.2 Whether breathing out, inhaling the valve slice could move about freely while checking before using, in order to prevent the valve slice from sticking with valve seat. Stick, should reuse wash, the intersection of valve and blocks of one valve seat. 1.4.3 Use mask, turn on splice spiral shell that mask pay, fill in first, then back out and strain the poisonous cover, tighten the filter on the corresponding whorl interface of the face guard again, in order to guarantee the airtight of the point of connection, the bottom that takes down the filter finally fills in, can use. 1. 4. After 4 masks are used and finished, preserve separately, the special messenger keeps. Fill in and use the marking card conscientiously immediately. 1. 4. After 5 mask use, should wipe to the limit every position sweat and booty, can wipe to the limit and sterilize with the intersection of alcohol and cotton ball or 0.5% the intersection of potassium permanganate and solution. Leave in the shady and cool, dry place. Don’t contact organic solvents such as the petrol,etc. or pile up at will, it is out of shape to prevent the face guard from being pressed. 1. 4. After 6 filters are used and finished, twist the upper cover, buckle the bottom to fill in, fills the bottom in and seals with the cover, put in the desiccator and store. 1. 4. 7 stores the term of validity for ten years while keeping on request. 1.5 SF6 specialized gas mask technical specification accords with the relevant regulations of the filtering national standard GB2890-82 of gas mask. 1. 5. A face guard: 1 Appearance: Fit human face closely well, has not obviously pressed and keenlied feel, the fixed system has enough rigidity and intensity, the part is easy to change. 2 The system of leaking gas: Smaller than 0.005%. 3 The resistance that the exhalation valve flows to the air: Smaller than 10 millimetres of water columns ‘ 98.0 handkerchieves . 4 The valve airtight of exhaling: Greater than 45 seconds. 5 Reality is harmful and empty: Smaller than 230 ml. 6 Resistance of inhaling flows to the air: Smaller than 3.0 millimetres of water columns 29.4 handkerchieves 7 Visual field: The total visual field is greater than 75%; Visual field the main idea 60% of the pair of item; Below visual field greater than 40 degree.
1. 5.2 SF6 specialized filter 1 Airtight: There is no bubble ease to go out of in one minute, the pot has sealed packaging. 2 Resistance flows to the air: Smaller than 12.0 millimetres of water columns 118 handkerchieves . 3 To the sulfur dioxide SO2 Gas defense time Minimum to protect time effectively : It no less than 20 minute,whose name is density for 8 milligrams / liter in SO2 volume is for 0.3%, flow not 0 liters in density /divide . 4 Absorb the acid material ‘ Count with hydrogen Fluorine sour HF Performance: The intersection of acidity and the intersection of location and 74.3PPMv, velocity of flow angry and mixing of air angry to lead the filter to in cleavage for 6 / SF6 that divide, after absorbing for 300 minutes, it is 0.35PPMv to see through the angry acidity.5 The absorption speed to the impurity S2F10O: Standard angry S2F10O get density 5200PPMv, velocity of flow for 300 / divide, filter absorb after the 56 minute, through angry density being zero, the seeing through rate is zero. 6 The absorption speed to the impurity SO2F2: It is standard angry SO2F2 density it is to 300 mls been for 9586 PPMv, velocity of flow /divide,filter be absorbed after 56 minute, be 131.5PPMv when seeing through by densities angried, it is 1.4% to see through leading. Note: There is not a national standard to the gas defense time of HF, S2F10O, SO2F2 temporarily. 7 Weight: Under 200-300g. SF6 Defend the antichemical conjuncted clothes of acid specializedly The place of production: France Size : L-M-XL Color : Green Description : Defend the conjuncted clothes of acid. Take the hood of anorak. Cuff and ankle have no elasticity. The snap fastener has zippers to play. The seam is sealed. Material : PVC 380 grams / square meter Operation instructions : Put on from foot first, after not regulating good, set enter sleeve and then, along the side of the border tie the zipper, buckle. Wear the hood of anorak. It must guarantee before until it is dangerous to enter area let’s work, want, draw well zipper all, along the side of the border buckle well. If the clothes are damaged, please stop dressing. Forbidding : Outside the above-mentioned operation instructions range, can’t use this product. Don’t contact those ones that have not been tested in advance and contain the caustic, poisonous object. It explains to store : Mark on a label of the inside of the clothes on date of production of the clothes. If the clothes are kept in the original package, is not made moist, is not exposed to chemical products, solvent or corrosivity material, the service life of products was generally 5. It explains to wash and maintain : Wash with the warm ink and soap, and the cloth is polished with be. Propose not using the solvent, chemical article or corrosivity material to wash. Dry in the open air. Performance : This conjuncted clothes accords with 89/686 of the order requirements in Europe, safe and nonpoisonous, comfortable and easy to wear, flexible and ventilative, and accord with following European standard and EN466-1: 1995 types 3. Technical parameter: *EN530 hard-wearing grade : Grade 5/6 1500 times *ISO5978 heat stability : Grade 1/2 bind slightly *ISO2023 able to bear crookedly : Grade 5/5 300,000 times *ISO9073-4 resist the tearing : Grade 2/5 greater than 20 oxen *EN863 defend puncturing the grade : Grade 2/5 greater than 10 oxen *ISO 2411 coat and glue the intensity Grade 5/5 greater than 1250 oxen *EN374-3 resist the liquid to permeate : -Grade of 98% sulfuric acid is 1/6 t
The energy question, become an important problem of China’s economic development. In order to implement the scientific development view, build the saving society, to ” 11 five ” The end of the plan, should realize resource utilization efficiencies are raised notably, unit Chinese total output value energy consumption reduces by about 20%. The use of the new regenerated energy including that the solar energy generates electricity, will become the key of realizing this goal. For this reason, ” renewable energy law ” Had already implemented formally on January 1, 2006. By 2020, China will support the renewable energy industry including industry in a more cost-effective manner, the solar energy power generating technical industry of China will welcome a big developing period.
According to the incomplete statistics, China is engaged in already exceeding 100 houses in the unit that the power generating technical industry of solar energy studied, developed, produced and employed now, it is still famous big enterprises such as the solar energy Utilities Electric Co. of Germany and new energy Co., Ltd. of profit of Great Britain, Baoding,etc. to be similar to Wuxi, the big enterprises of other trades such as the electric group of electricity of China enter one after another, the solar energy power generating technical industry of China strengthens rapidly, already broke through the 2006 when put forward in the past and produced the solar cell 20MW per year, the solar energy generating equipment added up to the index of the installed capacity 80MW. However, there are some problems. Visiting both ends outside from head to foot of solar cell assembly of the main products among them: More than 90% of the original reliance inlets, more than 90% of the reliance of products is exported. Will probably hamper Chinese solar energy power generating technical industry’s progress.
Solar energy power generating technology, as a kind of multi-disciplinary technology of crossing synthetically, including physical power solar cell , chemical the power ‘ Storage battery Vary with the power ‘ Go against becoming device, charger Wait for power technology, receive the attention of increasingly many power workers too. ” the 6th issue was published in 2006 ” for the power information of the periodical ” Development trend and prospect of the solar energy solar cell industry ” ,Read, inspired deeply, cause authors to think too. Here, pass through and use several respects which analyzes industry’s project from world: Technology, material, foreign the current situation ‘ Current situation of the same trade , correlation technique,etc.,it is express opinions to develop by solar energy power generating the issues and trends of the technical industries about China, exchange with everybody. If there is any impropriety, please make a comment.
A solar energy power generating technology
Characteristic that 1.1 solar energy generates electricity
Solar energy power generating technology mainly includes: Technology such as solar cell and matrix, storage battery and charger, going against the becoming device. It has the following characteristics.
1 Enable the sun. The advantage is that the solar energy is enormous in total amount, use the energy that can not be exhausted; Not influencing the excrement of the environment, it is the most clean energy; Not centring in a certain place, it is a energy that can utilize on the whole earth. However, it is its shortcoming to be non- centralized. Can take the method of focusing on etc. sometimes, to raise the efficiency. In addition, are still influenced by weather, generally while calculating the conversion power of the solar cell, all come down to confirm in the fixed weather and radiation condition, adopt the unit to call the peak tile, the symbol is Wp. For being convenient below, still use tiles W in this text As the unit, but the actual meaning is a peak tile Wp .
2 It was resting device that the solar energy generated electricity and used, can’t move the part, it is apt to safeguard. Solar cell, storage battery and going against to change device can all adopt the module structure, freedom association, the size is changeable, the production that can be large-scale, lower costs. Do not need to transport the fuel, can put on outlying district and island. Build shorter than power station and thermal power station time limit, save the fee on constructing.
3 The solar energy generates electricity and generally installs the apparatus in the user site, can save the apparatus of power transmission and distribution. According to the intersection of Japan and relevant statistical data, can save, supply power 25% cost about. But 1MW 1000kW The above-mentioned solar energy electricity generation systems, should still adopt the apparatus of power transmission and distribution, form the independent electric wire netting.
Someone of China develops the root ” A consumption light is bent over and incorporated into the power networks to go against the becoming device ” . Publish some different opinions to this here, for studying developers to consult. ” a consumption ” ,Or ” have no consumption ” ,According to study developer, say, gain merit, it dawdles to be only little to reach approach zero consumption in fact, it is a kind of statement of the slightly exaggerative meaning. However, have and not have, great and small, zero and small is two kinds of different concepts. Must not pair ” It is small ” Say to ” have ” ,A pair of ” small ” Say into ” zero ” . In this way, ” a consumption ” ,Efficiency will be up to 100%, will develop a kind of new ” perpetual machine ” ? Sometimes, truth and falsehood differ by one only, step this step, will make a noise, happen great joke! As the scientific worker, should use rigorous science to use words, can’t use the advertisement type language, let’s hope to mutually encourage with relevant friends.
2 materials are big problems of determining development of technical industry
With studying the developing stage differently, produce stage in the scale, the products developed out, need enough raw materials and could be produced in batches. Without the reliable and steady material source, the development of the technical industry will probably stagnate, even die young, there are quite many experience and lessons in this respect, noteworthy.
Solar cell that China produce now spend, 90% the above adopt pure silicon including mono-crystalline silicon and polycrystalline silicon that refine . According to the materials report, the Chinese solar cell needed to use 2691 tons of polycrystalline silicon in 2005, among them still two big enterprises producing solar cell of new energy Co., Ltd. of solar energy Utilities Electric Co.,Ltd. of Germany and profit of Great Britain, Baoding need to use polycrystalline silicon to be about 1000 tons in Wuxi. China has high Mei semi-conductive material factory and Luoyang mono-crystalline silicon Co., Ltd. only to produce polycrystalline silicon at present, the output was 60 tons in 2004. More than 90% of the polycrystalline silicon can only be imported from foreign countries. However, under the situation of Chinese polycrystalline silicon with seriously out-of-balance supply and demand, the main manufacturing enterprise of foreign polycrystalline silicon forms the coalition of companies, control technological transfer and monopolize the global polycrystalline silicon material and raise the price of polycrystalline silicon strictly, rise from 13 dollars / kg to 80 dollars / kg in 2005. Have even more, because the assembly price of solar cell which China exports is lower than some polycrystalline silicon supply countries to produce the assembly price of solar cell exported, they adopt the limit to purchase even prohibit purchasing polycrystalline silicon material method to China, in order to safeguard one’s own market. Enable some solar cell manufacturing enterprises in China, even produce high price and can not buy enough polycrystalline silicon material either, form very awkward situation. The polycrystalline silicon material reliance import above solar cell 90%, has already become the bottleneck of China’s manufacturing while restricting.
In order to change this awkward situation, must concentrate strength on breaking through this difficulty of the raw materials. Though before China from ” The Seventh Five-Year Plan Period ” Plan to set up to ” Ten five ” Fail to break through the key technology of the polycrystalline silicon material at the end of term, but the situation is different now. Under the circumstances that such enormous market demand and economic benefits are promoted, investors and the scientific workers will all concentrate strength on tackling key problems, make the polycrystalline silicon material expand producing from 60 tons until 3000 tons are totally possible rapidly. Because China has already had production unitted that can be regarded as and relied on, do not start from scratch. It is reported silicon high Science Technologies Co., Ltd. put 300 the intersection of polycrystalline silicon and production line into operation will it be September 2005 in the Luoyang, it is one. Meanwhile, are still researching and developing the solar cell project of using other materials, such as copper indium selenium solar cell, organic nanometer brilliant solar cell and non- pure silicon material solar cell production technology. Now, the best breakthrough point of the Chinese solar energy power generating technical industry, no longer expand solar cell production of polycrystalline silicon, but develop the solar cell of other materials, especially how to solve polycrystalline silicon material supplies problem of the solar cell.
Now, the solar cell in 90% of China is exported, will become and limit another big problem that the Chinese solar energy power generating technical industry develops too.
The sun of China has abundant energy. Accept the amount of the total amount of annual solar radiation according to every area, can divide China into five kinds of areas. A kind of area is the most abundant area of solar energy resource, the total amount 6680~8400MJ/m2 of annual solar radiation, including north of Ningxia, the north of Gansu, the east of Xinjiang, our department of Qinghai and west of Tibet. The class II area is a solar energy resource more abundant area, the total amount 5850~6680MJ/m2 of annual solar radiation, including Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei northwestern part, Shanxi in the middle part of north, the Inner Mongol and south, Ningxia south, in the middle part of Gansu, Qinghai east, Xinjiang south and Tibet the southeast. Three kinds of areas are the resource medium-sized type area of solar energy, the total amount of solar radiation is 5000~5850MJ/m2, including the southeast of Hebei, south of Shanxi, Jilin, Liaoning, north of Shaanxi, the southeast, the north of Xinjiang, south of Yunnan, Henan, Guangdong, north of Hong Kong, Macao, Shandong, Jiangsu, north of Anhui, south of Fujian and the southwest of Taiwan of Gansu. Four kinds of areas are a solar energy resource worse area, the total amount 4200~5000MJ/m2 of annual solar radiation, including north of the Inner Mongol, Heilongjiang, south, the north of Hubei, Hunan, Guangxi, Guangdong, south of Shanghai, Jiangsu, south of Anhui, north of Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian and Northeast of Taiwan of Shaanxi. Five kinds of areas are the worst area of solar energy resource, the total amount 3350~4200MJ/m2 of annual solar radiation, including Sichuan, Chongqing and Guizhou. China belong to the intersection of one – two – three and area above the 2/3 whole area, annual mean day the intersection of radiation and quantity in 4000MJ/m2 the above-mentioned, annual sunshine time is over 2000 hours. With comparing with the other countries of the latitude in the world, is close with U.S.A., it is better than Japan and European country. The so abundant solar energy resources in China, in order to develop solar energy power generating industry, have offered the good market. For example the most areas of Japan are equivalent to four kinds of areas of China, builds same 3kW incorporating into the power networks one and uses generating equipment of solar energy, according to 75% of comprehensive efficiency, solar cell photoelectric conversion efficiency 10% is calculated, Japan needs to use 28m2 solar cell, China three kinds of areas need to use 20m2 solar cell, can save 28.5% solar cells of expenses, help incorporating into the power networks one by the popularizing of generating equipment of solar energy.
Will turn the good market condition into a realistic market, the key depends on the cost, cost of electricity-generating of the generating equipment of only solar energy. The cost of electricity-generating of the generating equipment of solar energy, investment and interest are added by 20 years and operate maintenance cost for the first time by the apparatus, the electric consumption that annual sunshine time sends out is shared, can calculate per degree of electricity kW h Cost of electricity-generating. The generating equipment of solar energy does not consume the fuel while running, during running in life-span 20, except storage battery, does not basically need to maintain, so the cost of electricity-generating is mainly decided by apparatus investment and interest of the beginning. The investment of the generating equipment of solar energy is roughly divided into a solar cell matrix and accounted for 60%, it accounts for 15% to go against the becoming device, the storage battery accounts for 15%, the others are 10%, among them the price of the solar cell is the main factor. So, when the general documents and materials is listing the cost of electricity-generating of the generating equipment of solar energy, list the price of the solar cell and generating equipment price of solar energy at the same time. Statements of documents and materials seen now are inconsistent. What the author relatively believed is that the solar cell price of 2006 is 3.15 dollars / W, the price of 6 dollars of generating equipment / W, cost of electricity-generating of 0.25 dollars / kW h. Solar cell price of 1.8 dollars / W of 2010, the price of 3 dollars of generating equipment / W, the cost of electricity-generating of 0.1 dollars / kW h. Unfortunately, have not meant clearly it is still the average price of China abroad, have not explained the relation between the cost of electricity-generating and rate for incorporation into the power network either, so just present rate for incorporation into the power network of 3.4 yuan or 4.5 yuan / kW h and cost of electricity-generating of 0.25 dollars / there is greater disparity between kW h, make readers unable to understand what it is about on earth? According to wind-force the cost of electricity-generating and price relation offered in references [1 ], can extrapolate: Rate for incorporation into the power network mean cost of electricity-generating take advantage of 120% ‘ Consider 20% profit Again times 117% And then consider 17% value-added tax ,That is to say the rate for incorporation into the power network equals 1.404 times of costs of electricity-generating. Receive and shine this algorithm, the rate for incorporation into the power network of the solar energy generating equipment of 2006 is that RMB 2.8 yuan / about kW h, the rate for incorporation into the power network in 2010 should be for 1.12 yuan / about kW h connect 8 yuan such as 1 dollar to calculate .
According to ” medium and long-term development plan of regenerated energy ” ,2010, Chinese the intersection of solar energy and generating equipment installed capacity reach 500MW totally, 300~350MW use for, solve the intersection of outlying district and the intersection of non-electric power and power supply of district among them. Reached 2000MW in 2020, offered the enormous opportunity for development of the Chinese solar energy power generating industry, except the communication, traffic and illumination, mainly there are two markets of the solar energy generating equipment of China: Independent generating equipment and incorporating into the power networks generating equipment of solar energy. Discuss some questions among them separately as follows.
The one of peasants and herdsmen that China begins to popularize 100~500W from the eighties of last century uses generating equipment of solar energy. Implemented the brightness project later, solved the life power consuming problem of the 23 million people of the non-electric power in the outlying district. From 2001, implement ” regenerated energy development projects of the global environmental fund / World Bank ” Regenerated energy village power generating project plan supported with United Nations Development Programme, till now, have already installed the solar energy generating equipment of the users of more than 500,000 100~500Ws, until outlying district and island set up at county level and the intersection of township and grade, at village level, school use 1kW and from 10kW to the intersection of 100kW and big and small the intersection of solar energy and the intersection of power station and about 1000, the total capacity has already reached 50MW, will also run up year by year at the speed of over 30% in the future totally. The garden township in the county built up 10kW solar energy and generated electricity and stood up in Gansu Province elm since 1985, through more than 20 years, the independence type family of China used and the solar energy generating equipment technology under 100kW has been already basically ripe. In the future, besides continuing popularizing using and medium and small-scale solar energy generating equipment of family, also develop towards solar energy power station above large-scale 1MW. Built up 1MW solar energy power station in Shenzhen of Guangdong in September of 2004. Shanghai planned to build the demonstration solar energy power station of total capacity 5MW before 2007, among them build 1MW solar energy power station in Chongming Island at first. Sichuan climbs the west area and plans to build 2MW solar energy power station. ” Dunhuang 8MW was incorporated into the power networks the solar cell system and built the feasible report in advance ” in Gansu in 2005, have already listed ” 11 five ” in the country through the expert appraisal Plan, build up capacitying will exceed the largest 6.45MW solar energy power station in the world now.
It has unique advantages that China develops generating equipment of independent solar energy. The present non-electric power district is in solar energy resources to the abundant western regions and the southeast islands of one, two, three kinds, the radiation of solar energy is great in total amount, sunshine time of annual mean is long, can use few solar cells and storage batteries while building the power station of solar energy, annual generation high, thus enable the sun, drop notably by cost of electricity-generating. If generate electricity and solve the power supply problem of the non-electric power area with the diesel oil, his cost of electricity-generating considers the freight is inclusive, exceed the cost of electricity-generating of solar energy. If erect the circuit to solve the power supply problem of the non-electric power area from the existing power transmission network, the investment cost is large. According to the introduction of materials, build transmission line of electricity of 1km, it is equivalent to the investment cost of the electric apparatus of 5~6kW solar energy. Non-electric power area most from the intersection of power transmission network and dozens of km, build the intersection of 100kW and above the intersection of solar energy and investment cost of power station, lower than expense to build transmission line of electricity too.
Going against the becoming device in the generating equipment of independent solar energy, should select different types for use according to capacity size. 100~500W one uses generating equipment of solar energy, mainly adopts worker’s insulating way of the voltage transformer frequently now. 10kW following the intersection of solar energy and power station too can adopt have the intersection of worker and the intersection of voltage transformer and insulating way frequently. Because is reliable, steady, the maintaining amount is relatively suitable for working in the outlying district little. But at present worker the intersection of voltage transformer and insulating way go against person who become frequently, main voltage transformer unshakable in one’s determination to adopt the cold-rolled silicon steel of orientation, loss in order to reduce unshakable in one’s determinationly, the magnetism of job is dense and low, the volume and weight are large. In order to change such main voltage transformer, U.S.A. was in the eighties of last century, it is unshakable in one’s determination to already adopt the non- brilliant alloy of iron base, go against person who become under the efficiency in a same one, unshakable in one’s determination weight reduce 1/3, main the intersection of voltage transformer and weight reduce by 2/5. Now, the non- brilliant alloy of Chinese iron base is unshakable in one’s determination and the voltage transformer production technology has been already ripe, the price orienting the cold-rolled steel at the same time rises, has already exceeded the non- brilliant alloy price of iron base, there is unshakable in one’s determination going against and turning into the voltage transformer while making the generating equipment of solar energy of non- brilliant alloy of iron base. The solar energy power station above 100kW can adopt the insulating way of the high-frequency voltage transformer or surge the insulating way of the voltage transformer, high-frequency voltage transformer and defy voltage transformer can adopt non- and brilliant, and nanometer brilliant alloy unshakable in one’s determination, operating frequency 20kHz, the ones that can totally guarantee more than 90% go against and is turned into efficiency. Going against the becoming device in the solar energy power station above 50kW of now, already there are enterprises that have adopted the module structure abroad, each the intersection of module and 10kW or 20kW, easy to produce, can flexible to make up of different capacity to go against the ng device also, can also improve the dependability of running. The solar energy power station above 10kW, is used as an area, need small-scale losing the distribution network, the distance is smaller than 500m to supply power, can adopt 380/220V voltage grade. It is above from 3km to supply power, can adopt 1kV or 6kV voltage grade. Go against the becoming device and export and raise from 220V to 1kV or 6kV, the circuit structure does not change, only needs to change parameter and insulating structure of the main voltage transformer, go against the becoming device at this moment and adopt worker’s insulating way of the voltage transformer frequently better, it is easy to realize it is isolated that the high pressure is insulating.
Incorporating into the power networks one will become another staple market of Chinese solar energy power generating industry with generating equipment of solar energy. According to ” renewable energy law ” implemented on January 1, 2006, incorporating into the power networks one could connect with electric wire netting legally with generating equipment of solar energy, can supply the surplus electricity that the generating equipment of the sun sends out with the electric wire netting in the daytime, can be powered by the electric wire netting in the evening. Indicate solar energy generate electricity by outlying to develop towards power of general electric wire netting with the intersection of island and special power supply power of district, supplement energies and develop towards alternative energy source. Incorporating into the power networks one has the following advantages with generating equipment of solar energy:
1 Install on the roof, save the matrix structure of the solar cell;
2 Link with electric wire netting directly, does not need storage battery and charger;
3 Supply users directly, does not need the apparatus of power transmission and distribution.
So, the cost of electricity-generating is lower than with the independent solar energy generating equipment of the area.
However, incorporating into the power networks a rate for incorporation into the power network with the generating equipment of solar energy exceeds 3 yuan / kW h at present, well-above the price of electricity in urban and rural areas of 0.5 yuan of electric wire netting / kW h, the electric wire netting company can not buy incorporating into the power networks one and use surplus electricity of generating equipment of solar energy with so high a price. If incorporate into electric wire netting and let all users share, will damage the interests of the lower crowd of incomes, unfavorable to building the harmonious society. Under the condition of such high cost of electricity-generating, popularize incorporating into the power networks one to use generating equipment of solar energy in China, even adopt the government to replenish, it is still quite difficult. Should use generating equipment of solar energy through the trial incorporating into the power networks one at the present stage, solve the key technology problem, make the cost of electricity-generating approach the cost of electricity-generating of the fire power, one could be popularized in the real meaning on a large scale with generating equipment of solar energy in the incorporating into the power networks type.
4 foreign current situations
136 countries are popularizing popularizing and applying in the whole world at present, among them 95 countries are researching, developing and producing various solar energy generating equipment and solar cell and employing the products on a large scale. The solar cell total output in the whole world had already reached 2000MW in 2005. Japan development is very fast among them, the output of the solar cell accounts for 50% of total output in the world, every W cost of solar cell drops by 90% in 10 years. It was 450MW that the Japanese solar energy generating equipment added up to the total installed capacity in 2001, it was 887MW in 2003, reached 1900MW in 2004, estimated that reached 2350MW by 2008, would reach 5000MW in 2010. The intersection of whole world and the intersection of solar energy and generating equipment total installed capacity up to 18000MW totally 2010.
Every main country of the world is making great efforts to improve production scale and application scale of the generating equipment of solar energy, because the solar cell begins with amount of production 10MW, double each time, the cost will be reduced by 20%. Set up the large-scale solar energy power station of MW grade on employing, not only can lower costs, can also relieve power supply and environmental problem of desert and area on the island, offer motive force for the fact that the desert area dig well to draw water to desalt seawater with the island, improve the ecological environment. The solar energy power station of MW grade has already exceeded 10 in the world now, among them the largest a capacity reaches 6.45MW.
Incorporating into the power networks one used generating equipment of solar energy, developed rapidly since 1994, had already accounted for 55% of the generating equipment of solar energy of those years by 2003. Among them the more outstanding one is U.S.A., ” a million solar energy roof plan ” put forward in 1997 ,Calculated by each 3kW, plan to install the solar energy generating equipment of 3000MW altogether on the roof of 1 million users by 2010. Germany begin 100,000 the intersection of solar energy and the intersection of roof and plan that implement 1999, install solar energy generating equipment to it is altogether 300~500MW in 2005. The development incorporating into the power networks one uses generating equipment of solar energy, has already installed 58000 sets by 2004 since 1994 in Japan, reach 147600 sets by 2008.
Japan one spends generating equipment of solar energy for the intersection of development and person who is incorporate into the power networks ‘ 3~5kW ,Deal with it as a kind of new household appliances, break through key technology, reduction of cost. This is including bringing the conversion efficiency of the solar cell up to more than 15%, is developing the new insulating way of high-frequency voltage transformer or defying the insulating way of the voltage transformer to go against the becoming device. According to the introduction of materials, the Japanese solar cell price was 140 Japanese yen / W in 2005, it was 370 Japanese yen / W that incorporating into the power networks one used the generating equipment price of solar energy, the cost of electricity-generating is 30 Japanese yen / kW h. Will drop to 120 Japanese yen / W, 300 Japanese yen / W and 25 Japanese yen / kW h separately in 2010. Would drop to 60 Japanese yen / W, 200 Japanese yen / W and 15 Japanese yen / kW h separately in 2020. Can well compete with the price of generation of electric power by thermal power till that time.
5 correlation technique
There are many renewable energy technologies of China’s development, the first-elected wind-power electricity generation technology that can be compared with solar energy power generating technology. It is estimated China 10m layers of the intersection of wind energy and reserves that reality can develop for 2.53* 108kW, generate electricity, count to 2500 hour according to 2000 hour highly, the annual generation of wind-power electricity generation can reach 5.06* 1011kW h to 6.325* 1011kW h.
Has already developed the generating equipment of independent wind-force of 100W to 10kW now, 10kW generate electricity to mix the power supply unit with diesel oil generator or solar energy to the wind-power electricity generation of 200kW. The incorporating into the power networks generating equipment of wind-force, make up from the unit capacity 150kW to 2500kW wind-driven generator. The scale has already exceeded 10 in the incorporating into the power networks field of wind-power electricity generation of above 10MW.
By 2005, design the total installed capacity to be 1000~1500MW, and more than 20 times of the generating equipment of solar energy in China’s wind-power electricity generation. Plan to add up to the total installed capacity and reach 30000MW in wind-power electricity generation by 2020, it is 15 times of the generating equipment of solar energy. According to calculating, was 0.55 yuan / kW h that the rate for incorporation into the power network of wind-power electricity generation did not include the value-added tax in 2001, it is 0.64 yuan / kW h to includes the value-added tax. 12 enterprises in Shanghai bought the electricity of wind-power electricity generation of Shanghai at 1 yuan / kW h in June of 2005, cost and price generate electricity than the solar energy low. So, even by 2020, the power generating technical industry of solar energy does not catch the scale of the strength power generating technical industry of the windward either.
6 concludes the speech
And the trend that this text has discussed the issue that China develop power generating technical industry of solar energy from 5 respects such as situation, correlation technique in foreign countries. Though solar cell production capacity enters the international advanced ranks, photoelectric conversion efficiency has greater disparity. Against the becoming device technology develops unripely, face the important problem of the selecting type. The material reliance import of polycrystalline silicon, are restricting the development of the Chinese solar energy power generating technical industry, must concentrate strength on breaking this difficulty. Independent solar energy generating equipment technology is basically ripe, there are more reliable market prospects. Person who is incorporate into the power networks household use solar energy generating equipment cost of electricity-generating relatively high, want person who is incorporate into the power networks one spend generating equipment of solar energy through set up trial now, solve the critical technological problem, make the cost of electricity-generating close to the cost of electricity-generating of the fire power, could popularize on a large scale. Power generating technical industry will develop the solar energy fast before 2010 in the world. Should draw abroad in a more cost-effective manner ‘ Such as Japan Experience,unless photoelectric conversion efficiency to raise, it reduce cost of electricity-generating, it is generate electricity at proportion not accounted for in China energy structure not to could last solar energy. Compared with wind-power electricity generation of correlation technique, under the present technological condition, by 2020, the power generating technical industry of solar energy does not catch the scale of the strength power generating technical industry of the windward either, must be great and real and broken technically in keys such as the solar cell,etc., could change this kind of situation.
Technological characteristic of flammable gas detector of infrared ray
Flammable gas detector of infrared rayFirst, product are described Health of Germany of U.S.A. Detcon The company infrared ray flammable gas detector is based on advanced optics to sense technical design in order to survey the flammable alkane hydrocarbon gas detector. This kind of detector is charactered by noiseless, intelligent. Simple menu type regulate and module design and assemble, simplify, install, maintain and debug. 600 serial infrared ray flammable gas detectors reserve and carry on many kinds of choices of the communication with the outside system, including: 4-20mA, RS-485 data bus and 3 relays. Series 500 only offer standard 4-20mA to export. The phased maintenance that such unique infrared ray flammable gas detector is proved the work stable and reliable and necessary by practice is minimum. Second, IR-622 type and Model IR-522 alkane hydrocarbon flammable gas detector IR-622 type and IR-522 type are durable and durable, easy and simple to handle intelligent flammable gas detector, designed the change of 0~100% of lower limit in order to measure flammable alkane hydrocarbon gas density and exploding. This kind of detector uses a kind of one that obtain the patent ” Small-scale promptly the inserting type can change ” Optical sensor of infrared ray. The characteristic of the infrared ray sensor is long-time job stability and minimum phased maintenance. The gas sensor of infrared ray is a kind of extremely good substitute products to the traditional catalysis burning sensor under the environment of some measurement. The flammable gas detector of infrared ray is the ideal choice under the environment of following application: The frequent catalysis poison gas is exposed to the open air The frequent high flammable gas is discharged Oxygen deficiency environment Survey the environment difficult to realize Typical application Ocean homework platform and oil drilling platform Oil plant Petrochemical industry factory The compressed natural gas and liquefied gas are dealt with Waste water treatment Chemical plant Pump station Heat and power plant IR-622 Type characteristic Unique small-scale noiseless the intersection of scene and removable sensor of inserting etc. promptly, intelligent the intersection of detector and interface export: 4-20mA, RS-485 data bus and 3 alarm relays Few maintenance is required Design avoiding condensing the phenomenon in optics heated Diagnose the function by oneself in trouble The long-term use cost is cheap The specified expense quality in five years is guaranteed Low energy consumption IR-522 Type characteristic Unique small-scale inserting removable sensor of scene promptly Noiseless, intelligent detector interface Export: 4-20mA few maintenance required Design avoiding condensing the phenomenon in optics heated Diagnose the function by oneself in trouble The long-term use cost is cheap The specified expense quality in five years is guaranteed Low energy consumption IR-622 and IR-522 type flammable gas detector use methane as the gas of standard is regulated on the spot and the software is debugged. Company can other gas go on kind to be accurate too, but the customer must declare in advance during order. The table below is the calibration gas that the company can offer now: Methane Ethane Propane Butane Alkane of fifth Own alkane Age and alkane Hard alkane Ethylene Propene Butene Alkene of fifth Own alkene Hard alkene Propane of ring Own alkane of ring Own alkene of ring Pai alkene Methyl different man base ketone Third, technological characteristic of flammable gas detector of MicroSafe infrared ray 1 , introduction MicroSafe technological infrared ray flammable gas detector of Detcon Company belongs to the noiseless intelligent products, have good security performance, operation is flexible and simple and convenient. A main characteristic of this kind of detector is its automatic calibration function, can lead operators to regulate step by step through the suggestion that bring on the LCD in a poor light. 600 serial infrared ray gas detectors offer three kinds of different output ways: Analog signal 4~20mA direct current; RS-485 communication interface and 3 relays two alarm, a trouble is examined by oneself . Can debug the alarm bell live and programming. Different the intersection of output and way these set up, offer most great flexibility for system. Series 500 are only offered the output of 4~20MA direct current. Control circuit is based on microprocessor chip, seal, pretend one inserting module promptly and connect with the connection template of the standard. Sensor and signal generator are installed in a anti-blast chassis, there are glass covers on the chassis. There is digital display screen in a poor light that can reveal the sensor reading can also reveal the menu function during programming. All gas detectors of infrared ray the electric apparatus classify: Class I; Groups B, C, D; Division 1. This kind of product series has extended what Detcon Company reflect in the gas sensor design ” Easy installation, it is apt to safeguard ” Idea. 2 , noiseless encapsulation The detector is encapsulated in the metal outer cover of explosion-proof. Outer cover top spin first with glass cover. Magnetic the intersection of programming and button on changer panel can go on operating to their through magnetic the intersection of programming and tool that hold, this guarantees what sensor interfaces are operated is noiseless. All calibration and debugging live can not be uncapping, keep going on under the situation of the on-the-spot original state. 3 , simple and convenient calibration Take and reveal that regulate the suggestion on the LCD in a poor light, has simplified and regulated the step greatly. The technical staff can begin to regulate the procedure briefly only needing with the magnetic programming tool. Regulate procedure, start, detector reveal, regulate menu, menu offer zero calibration and initial the intersection of calibration and two kinds of choices. Selecting ZERO will begin to belong to a function automatically. Regulate and finish showing and returning to and regulating menus. Select SPAN to begin the automatic initial state to regulate, the display screen will demand to offer gas and density which this detector exactly makes. As soon as the gas offers, the detector begins automatic initial calibration. After the signal is stabilized, the detector will record the initial data and brief on the source of the gas of attenbant’s disconnection. Once the gas density belongs to zero, the detector will continue its original normal work automatically. If because detector of any reason is unable to carry out and regulate the procedure, the detector will reveal that make mistakes to brief on. This procedure only needs less than three minutes and almost make mistakes. 4 , the signal is exported The 600 type infrared ray gas sensor has two kinds of signals that are exported: 4~20mA of simulation outputs and exports with RS-485 data bus. But the 500 type output which has a kind of 4~20mA only. It is 4~20mA linear analog signal correlated with surveying the range to output signals. More than module controllers of series 10 of this kind of signal and Detcon Company and series 12, obtain the apparatus compatibly in programmable logic controller and other standard data. Simulation outputs two other functions. First, when entering and regulating menus, 4~20mA signal will be dropped to 2mA. This low electric current will reach the sensor to reply to the normal operation state. Second, once make mistakes, 4~20mA signal will be dropped to 0 mA, this state will keep until making mistakes the state will return to normal. These output change of the signal the working state for discerning and recording the sensor of the external apparatus. Use Modbus RTU agreement in RS-485 data communication, this agreement and almost all the programmable logic controller, man-machine interface software and other control systems are compatible. Because Modbus RTU agreement is a kind of standard. Can obtain the following information from RS-485 communication interface: Detector reading, detector alarm light, regulate the mode, detector mistake, two siren states and regulate the procedure mistake. The address of RS-485 can be listed inserting type directly by pair and encapsulated the switch to change. Communication make Line two and half duplexing, there is a 600 type detector as their servo apparatuses. From theory, the master controller can control 256 different 600 type detectors in 4000 feet at the same time far. 5 , alarm characteristic The 600 type infrared ray gas detector has three relays, two are responsible for the alarm, one is responsible for the trouble to examine by oneself. No 500 type relay of the tape. These three alarms can all transfer the following working state through jumping the line: Contact state can choose to often hold or often close ,Can adjust the relay and get continuously and energize yet or not with electricity continuously. In addition, the adjustable quite state too of the siren. Some can regulate through the menu to call the police. Can also suit well to examine the siren into a quite state through the menuing, and react to the following situations: The zero point drifts about and less than measuring range -10%, the microprocessor makes mistakes, makes mistakes in infrared light source, or any other states of hindering normal calibration of making mistakes in signal parameter. The intersection of relay and contact it makes the electric current to be 5 amperes under 250 V AC exactly; 5 amperes under 30 volts of direct currents. 6 , programming state The programming state can make users use the magnetic programming tool ” VIEW PROGRAMMING STATUS ” on the menu see the programming state Presume some alarms, RS of the sensor discern number, measure the gas and measure the range 485. Once enter this procedure, the display screen will look through the page in order to finish all debugging steps automatically. After finishing, the sensor will get back to the normal working state. 7 , the range of exceeding range When the gas density that the detector measures exceeds measuring 100% LEL of the range, the display screen will glimmer and reveal the supreme number value. When the gas density is returned to measuring in the range, the display screen will be replied to the normal working state. Fourth, order guide Infrared ray alkane hydrocarbon flammable the intersection of gas and detector ‘ Measurement range is 0~100% LEL The type recommends IR-622 infrared ray optics flammable gas detector to take 4-20 mA, RS-485, three relays are exported, noiseless type Take the display interface IR-522 infrared ray optics flammable gas detector and only take 4-20 mA to export, noiseless type Carry, reveal interface please mark out, examine into gas for instance, methane, ethane during order, propane or butane,etc.
Nuclear base, nuclear arsenal, nuclear-powered submarine, nuclear explosion Can people resist or reduce the injury that nuclear radiation cause to the human body by method of the diet? Verify, the answer is definite according to modern medical research. We might as well discuss from the mechanism of the human body of nuclear radiation injury that resist the food of radiation to construct: The ray that the nuclear material produces acts on the human body ‘ Nuclear radiation ,Will bring about distortion in organism macromolecule, even will stimulate the internal moisture son and produce free radical, then damage the biological member and cause radiation sickness. For this reason, should include to explain to construct briefly to resist the food of radiation: High protein, many vitamins, appropriate fat, nutrition are overall, the quantity is sufficient. Energy supply should be sufficient. Enough energy supply helps to improve tolerance to nuclear radiation of the human body, reduce sensitiveness, lighten and damage, protect the organism. Energy supplies 4000-4500 kilocalories every day. Carbohydrate supply is with particular emphasis. Because damage, lead to the fact the human digestive tract it is not the same to the results of absorbing of various candies, so results of preventing and curing the digestive tract and damaging are different, it is the best with fructose among them, glucose takes second place, and then cane sugar, dextrin,etc.. The fat content should not be high. Lose the appetite after receiving radiation on the basis of the human body, the taste is not good, the total delivery volume of the fat should be reduced appropriately, but need to increase the proportion that the vegetable oil accounts for, among them the oil acid can promote the regenerated function of the hematopoietic system, prevent and cure radiation and damage the result best. Protein should have quality. It is of fine qualities to require protein that takes in, the quantity is sufficient, in order to lighten to radiate damaging, promote the organism to get well. Inorganic salts should supply the adding amount. Increase inorganic salts in the meal in right amount ‘ It is mainly salt ,Can impel people’s amount of drinking water to increase, accelerate the radioactive nuclide to discharge with the urine, excrement and urine, thus shine and damage while lightening. The vitamin quantity should be guaranteed. Increase vitamins to resume effectively after supplying to preventing and curing radiation to damage and wounded, for instance VK can be reduced and bled, VPP lightens and vomits, disgusting, VC makes the blood cell regenerate and accelerate etc., for this reason should take in some more kelp, cabbage, carrot, honey, Matrimony vine,etc..