Summary: The depth defense is a basic principle which should be followed in design for fire protection of nuclear power station. Have introduced some implementation of this principle in the design for fire protection of nuclear power station: There are three sources of water of fire control, fire control water pump is put in four pump holes of antidetonation respectively, two independent emergent distribution systems supply power and mix the diesel oil generator to make reservely. The fire control of nuclear island supplies water antidetonation and ring network of the pipeline are designed, has increased one more protective screen for safety devices. The factory increases the ring network and is fixed up and the pipe network for the future of island reduce pressure and design the dependability which has improved the system conventionally, and convenient pipeline maintain.
With the development of Chinese nuclear power undertaking, the important subject generating electricity and already becoming China’s energy development recently with the core. Nuclear power station mainly factory building from the nuclear reactor ‘ Hereafter referred to as the nuclear island , vapour machine factory building Hereafter referred to as the regular island And technology or not technical the building ‘ Hereafter referred to as bop Wait for and make up. Because its particularity for producing facility, should guarantee no matter under normal running and accident condition it has enough security. So, the design for fire protection of the nuclear power station is different from the common civil design.
A fire control design specification that should be followed
The fire control norm of the civil facilities in China is only suitable for the non- nuclear facility and factory building of the nuclear power station at present.
Should follow China’s nuclear safety and lead had102/11 as to nuclear facility and design for fire protection of the factory building ” the nuclear power plant fires prevention “. But should it leads to be only the intersection of guidance and file, use it as the intersection of technical specification and standard, come, guide, fire prevention, design, can’t totally meet the demands. And Chinese most nuclear power station introduce foreign commerce, pile, design for fire protection its should build and match, with the intersection of craft and system with plant designing, so must also observe and introduce country’s corresponding fire-proof design specification.
Emphasize depth defense design concept is namely redundant, various to formulate the safety measure of fire control in ” whether nuclear power plant fire prevention “, thus guarantee high-level security. The redundancy is set up with the function, apparatus of the same type repeatedly promptly.
Function of 2 nuclear power plants of fire control water -supply systems
The fire of nuclear power station not only causes enormous losses, the consequence that may lead to the fact is also serious: Enormous casualties; Threaten the security of core or initiate the nuclear incident; Abominable masses influence. The one well known cuts the economic losses that Pele’s accident of the nuclear power station of the promise causes and has something to do with to the pollution of the environment directly two effects of the fire.
So, in order to guarantee enough security, must meet the total security designing requirement to design in fireproofing of the nuclear power plant. The nuclear safety leads had102 /11 ” fires prevention in the nuclear power plant ” clearly: The nuclear power plant should be through using steady voltage system and factory outdoor fire hydrant to make up in the design
3.1 Water production system of fire control
Water production system of fire control is made up of source of water, water pump, fire control pump house and pipeline. Its function is to offer water of fire control with enough design pressure, design flow to the nuclear island factory building of two aircrews, regular island factory building, bop and factory fire extinguisher.
Design basis: Because relate to the fact that the fire control of nuclear island supplies water, have design basis which carries out the fire control facilities of security system to consider according to protecting while designing. According to rcc-i, water of fire control that the fire control pump offers should be met and designed the flow of fire extinguishing of the basis fire the water yield of maximum fire control needed by the apparatus that the fixed fire extinguisher protects on the island conventionally Need,and guarantee while putting out the regular island and designing the basis fire the most greatly, need of water 200 m3/h that several indoor fire hydrants dawdle. It is designed that fire control facilities are considered redundantly. In addition, protect attachments such as the fire control facility, pipeline, valve of the security system,etc. do not allow to be destroyed during earthquake or after the earthquake, guarantee the integrality of its function, thus the one that guaranteed the security system protected by it is complete. So, except feedwater pipe of the source of water, the system divides into the antidetonation systems, should all design according to resisting the magnitude.
3.1.1 Source of water
Nuclear power station the intersection of fire control and dependability of source of water concern whole the intersection of fire control and the intersection of water and fire extinguishing system but operation directly or not, just as ” the nuclear power plant fires prevention ” the stated 5.4.3: The water system should be received on the secure enough sources of water of fire control permanently. It still concerns really fire that has happened how to realize surveying and putting out fast, thus limit this goal of the damage of the fire. So the source of water must be: Have enough, reliable water yield; Water water quality of fire control should fulfil requirements.
There are three this nuclear power station of sources of water of fire control: Drunk the water system by life and supplied water to the fire control pond automatically under the normal situation, there is a signal of liquid which controls the drinking water pipeline electronic valve switch in the pond. While drinking the water system to supply water to fail in life, convert to the unboiled water system and supply water, controlled with the manual valve by the attenbant to mend water. Water of these two sources of water flows into two independent ones and bes able to store the concrete pond of 1 400 m3 Tamshui. The third source of water is the sea water, once the pond water level of fire control drops to the location of low warning liquid, the attenbant needs what has been opened the fire control pump and connected with sea water manually sucks the valve that the jellyfish is in charge of, the water pump sucks the sea water directly.
Its capacity of fire control pond was designed according to the water yield of fire control of fire extinguishing of basis fire of design of the factory building of the vapour machine. This water yield is greater than the fire extinguishing water consumption of the nuclear island factory building, so to the fire control of nuclear island, the water yield stores and can meet the demands. The fire control pond is the structure against shaking, thus has guaranteed the dependability of the source of water. Set up the continuous usability of source of water when two pieces of independence, redundant light pond have been guaranteed to overhaul. Two mend the intersection of water and system, two sources of water ‘ Fresh water and sea water Substitution,last ones that defend vertical deeply.
One system of mending water of water of fire control is that drinking water, one are unboiled water filtered, water quality accords with water requirement of fire control; Sea water that adopt through transfer the intersection of drum and filter screen to ‘ Screen aperture 3 mm * 3 mm After filtering, enter the pipe network of fire control directly. Thus, this nuclear power station of sources of water of fire control have a multiple defence measure in design, have reflected the steady voltage system
The steady voltage systems are very important in the whole fire control pipe network in the water -supply system of fire control: Should keep daily pipe network run pressure, offer in initial stage of the fire or initial the intersection of fire and water yield of fire control at first the intersection of fire control and pump reach rated power yet. Whether its dependability is determining or not whether can limit the spreading of condition of a fire effectively.
Steady voltage of nuclear power station this whom system adopt the steady voltage device composed of atmospheric pressure pot, steady voltage pump, air compressor ‘ See Fig. 2 . It is made up of the atmospheric pressure pot of one 75 m3, 2 benefit water pumps of 1.5 l/s, air compressor and related pipe network of 2 sets of steady voltage. Operation principle: When because the system of supplying water of fire control of the whole factory leaks, drains off water or has fire demand water, water level and pressure are thereupon decline in the atmospheric pressure pot, when reaching the low water level presumed in water level, at this moment if the systematic pressure has not reached the pressure 1.2 mpa of normal running, then the air compressor of steady voltage starts and invigorates vital energy for the atmospheric pressure pot, achieve the goal of mended and pigeonholed for the whole factory fire-fighting systemming, after the pressure reaches the normal condition, steady voltage air compressor stops running. After in this course as mending the water pump to start, if the water pressure of system of supplying water of fire control of the whole factory still continues dropping, when the pressure drops a lower pressure value 1.1 mpa, the main fire control pump will be started automatically. The water yield of fire control of initial fire offered is that the pressure stored in the atmospheric pressure pot is 1.2 mpa, water of fire control with capacity of 25 m3, based on the power normally, the main fire control pump will be confirmed under the condition of starting and reaching the normal running state in 43 s. At it can satisfy the fire, that provided for pipe network is that water of fire control of the first 1 min of the fire of largest once might take place in the power plant at least. The source of water of mending the water pump is that the life laid in the vapour machine factory building drinks the water pipe. The whole system is not the aseismatic design. Systematic characteristic: Unless it is steady high-pressure for system, at the time of fire,let’s not only can offer on essential fire control water yields initial but also can assurance fire control water pressure; Mend the water pump, air compressor to redundant design; Run and safeguard reliably, have function result with the high-order water tank steady voltage system equivalent, and practical, feasible, economic.
Under the normal situation, fire control pond and system are full of water, the systematic pressure is controlled by the steady voltage system that is set up in the vapour machine factory building. When the fire insurance takes place, the systematic pressure value is dropped to some and will certainly be worth, in 30 s, the distribution system of meeting an urgent need supplies power, fire control pump is started sequentially according to the water yield of fire control, change in the system pressure, if exceed 30 s, the firewood generator reserve emergency supply from meeting an urgent need of the fire control pump Power supply. While failing by automatic way, can start to intervene manually in the top management room or in situ. Water of fire control supplies to some of fire demand water through the distributing system, after fire control is finished, the stoppage in transit of the water pump is by the manual operation of top management room.
In sum, the fire control water -supply system of this nuclear power station is designed in the source of water, water pump, the motive force source is formulated and there are several redundant, various measures respectively on the control method, the fire control of nuclear island supplies water antidetonation and ring network of the pipeline are designed, has increased one more security barrier for safety devices, so has fully reflected the design principle of the depth defense. The factory increases the ring network and is fixed up and the pipe network for the future of island reduce pressure and design dependability and availability which has improved the system conventionally, and convenient pipeline maintain. The choice of the steady voltage system is advanced, reliable. So the whole fire control water -supply system is designed have feasibility, usability and dependability.
Chinese the intersection of nuclear power and undertaking start just, understand China, fire prevention outside fully the intersection of application and nuclear power in future of norm at design design China produce, it takes to be very necessary.
According to the country ” new energy industry revitalizes and plans ” the draft, the Chinese wind-powered electricity total installed capacity will reach 150 million kilowatts in 2020, it is 5 times of goal of ” medium and long-term development plan of regenerated energy ” released in 2007. The national energy office has confirmed the base of wind-powered electricity of ten million kilowatts to plan, after base of wind-powered electricity of force of ten million kilowatts to guarantee planning build up, China can reach installed capacity of 100 million kilowatt in 2020.
According to planning, China make 7 the intersection of ten million and the intersection of force and the intersection of wind-powered electricity and base in Gansu, Xinjiang, Hebei, Jilin, the Inner Mongol, Jiangsu. The total installed capacity of the construction plan of base of wind-powered electricity of force of ten million kilowatts of Jiuquan of Gansu is 35,650,000 kilowatts; Hami of Xinjiang plans 20 million kilowatts; The planning and construction of the Inner Mongol is 50 million kilowatts, among them is covered with 20 million kilowatts of the west, is covered with 30 million kilowatts of the east; Hebei plans to build 10 million kilowatts in coastal area and northern territory together; The planning and construction of Jiangsu is 10 million kilowatts, 7 million kilowatts in the coastal waters among them; Jilin western region, mainly plans to reach 23 million kilowatts by 2020 in cities such as loose source and Baicheng,etc..
Jiuquan of Gansu
The base of wind-powered electricity in Jiuquan is the base of wind-powered electricity demonstration of force of ten million kilowatts of first of China’s planning and construction, also the country following diversion of natural gas from the western to the eastern regions, west oil failing, transmission of electricity from the western to the eastern region and Qinghai-Tibet railway of the east, another significant project of the national development of western regions. According to the planning which the national energy office sanctioned, the base of wind-powered electricity of force of ten million kilowatts of Jiuquan is in ” eleven five ” Will build up 5,160,000 kilowatts of installation in the end; ” twelve five ” The end increases 7,550,000 kilowatts of installation newly again, add up to 12,710,000 kilowatts of installation.
The total reserves of resource of wind energy in Jiuquan are 150 million kilowatts, developing amount can be more than 40 million kilowatts, usable area is nearly 10,000 sq. km.. The power density of 10 meters of high wind, in more than 250-310 watts for each square meter, the wind speed of annual mean is more than 5.7 meters per second, annual to generate electricity for several nearly 2300 hours of hour at full capacity, without destructive wind speed, it is extremely favorable to utilize wind energy, suitable for building the large-scale incorporating into the power networks field of wind-power electricity generation.
Jiuquan the intersection of ten million and the intersection of force and wind-powered electricity base the intersection of China and first, the intersection of world and most large wind-powered electricity project of scale at present of planning and construction, the significance of its meaning, ones that influenced are far-reaching, destined to be written into new China the industrial development history of energy. The gross investment is up to more than 120 billion yuan.
According to the latest news, the base of equipment new and high technology industrialization of national wind-powered electricity of Jiuquan is listed formally on the 12th of this month.
Hami of Xinjiang
Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Regions is one of the most abundant provinces of China’s wind energy resource, Hami Prefecture lies in the east of Xinjiang, the east of Tian Mountains, the whole area is 139,000 sq. km., wind the intersection of power and density it greater than or equal to area of 150W/m2s to be 45664, wind energy the intersection of resource and technology can the developing amount up to 64,988,000 kilowatts. According to the intersection of wind and the intersection of electric field and the intersection of project and geology, insert power system, communications and transportation, construct installing, natural environmental protection, area and previous progress of wind-powered electricity, preliminary the intersection of planning and construction and the intersection of Hami and the southeast, three pool lake and the intersection of Nao and maos of lake before the 2020 year such as Hami Prefecture, planning the capacity reaches more than 10 million kilowatts.
The Inner Mongol
The resources of wind energy in the Inner Mongol are abundant, it is one of the Chinese areas with the fastest developing speed of wind-powered electricity industry too, the wind energy technology in the whole district can develop the capacity and exceed 1 . 5 hundred million kilowatts, take above 50 of Chinese land wind energy resource reserves. The whole district is incorporated into the power networks the wind-powered electricity installed capacity and already increased at the speed exceeding 100 for 6 years in succession, the present wind-powered electricity is incorporated into the power networks the installed capacity and accounted for about 1/3 of China, occupy the primary importance of China.
By March 31, already wind-powered electricity of cities of 5 alliances has been incorporated into the power networks installed capacity of over 1 million kilowatts in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, becoming China firstly has province on 5 a million kilowatts of wind-powered electricity base. According to data that the electric employer’s organization of the Inner Mongol offer: Former the intersection of the Inner Mongol and wind-powered electricity incorporate into the power networks the installed capacity and reach 7,308,900 kilowatts, realize and break through wind-powered electricity incorporate into the power networks the installed capacity up to 7 million kilowatts of objectives this year ahead of time already, the installed capacity occupies the primary importance of China. Among them, examine the wind-powered electricity of cloth city and is incorporated into the power networks the installed capacity and reached 1,408,400 kilowatts in Ulan of the Inner Mongol, it is the wind-powered electricity in the Inner Mongol that is incorporated into the power networks in the alliance city most in installed capacity, other four more than 1 million kilowatts alliance cities are alliance, Bayan Nao market, Chifeng and Tongliao of Xilinguole respectively, it is 1,323,600 kilowatts, 1,236,400, 1,208,300 kilowatts of and 1,088,100 kilowatts to incorporate into the power networks the installed capacity separately.
National energy office chief Zhang Guobao has pointed out, the Inner Mongol possesses and builds ” wind-powered electricity Sanxia ” Condition. To ” eleven five ” The end, the installation of wind-powered electricity in the Inner Mongol will reach 8 million kilowatts, will to ” twelve five ” The end, it is about 20 million kilowatts to reach. By 2020, east, the western region of Mongolia total and plan the total installed capacity and top 50 million kilowatts.
Summary: Until the intersection of FTTH and networking launch thoroughly, FTTH the intersection of optical cable and structural design, manufacturing already must develop. When already had many kinds of cables in the original circuit pipeline well, need to install the new indoor optical cable. The space of pipeline has been already extremely limited, type take, cable surface is with low coefficient of friction, having appropriate crooked rigidity, good for installation characteristic and frictional force optical cable in rooms low of characteristics mechanical. Angry to blow an important advantage of concept of the optical cable: Increase with the network demand, the optical cable can be installed online. Do not need to cut off the traffic, excavate the land on the street. Want, solve network, increase demand, need, optimize optical cable, design, to must in charge of size hold most large the intersection of optic fibre and quantity a little. Use the crooked insensitive optic fibre, research and develop the small-scale skeleton optical cable products of 1000 core, increase the pipeline and place in FTTH optical cable to develop effectively, the butterfly type optical cable in a frictional force room, second, angry blows the new development of the optical cable, the development of the only fine type skeleton optical cable of crooked insensitivity of three, 1000 core. Fourth, intellectual electric wire netting optic fibre compounds the low-voltage cable of the skill and builds up OPLC. Butterfly type optical cable in a frictional force room. Having installed Line a lot of inside the pipeline, it is more limited to install the new line pipeline space, having developed miniaturization in order to solve this problem, have low friction, good security feature and indoor butterfly type optical cable, in order to realize these purposes, has implemented three methods, 1, reducing the size, 2, reduce the coefficient of friction of surface of the optical cable, 3, take it as improving the crooked degree of optical cable. In fact the optical cable is that low friction size of optical cable 2.0 to 3.1 is 1.6 to 2.0mm. The detection of frictional force is through such a method, now one is fixed, the sample, then draw out, protect materials, the comparison of the new development material outside the routine, in the low coefficient of friction inside, increase the slippery resin material appropriately inside protecting materials outside, in 0.4 this place, the line, this place, is basically steady, the resin material basically has saturation after adding by 0.4. A type of packaging formal Israel is packed till now boxly and packed. Security feature is through the pipeline if drawing out, it is 10 now, the low coefficient of friction 30 to 35. Can not push away to push into directly originally, now can be up to 30 to 31.
Second, angry blows the new development of the optical cable, there are the customers of 10,000 in the computer lab of general telecommunication centre, the user terminal takes 10,000 optic fibres or one pair of multiples purpose optic fibre at least when being connected Used for serving directly. Need to use 1,000 core optic fibres or more optic fibres are counted Optical cable. 216 core small diameter optical cables designed newly can install in 12mm little tube, recommend adopting the density of high optic fibre under the minimum space demand. It is based on pipeline and wide to unite the network, is in charge of blowing the optical cable kindly and already existing in the whole world a little, a kind of important advantage of this kind of concept is: Increase with the network demand, the optic fibre can be installed online. The optic fibre packs ointment and is used for blocking water longitudinally between bunch, the optic fibre pitches the yarn before entering the pushing out of machine, ointment is packed the optic fibre bunch at the same time, in order to solve this problem, before ointment enter the needle tube, heat ointment. Because the viscosity of ointment after heating is lower than the viscosity at room temperature, is apt to enter the optic fibre to pitch in bunch. Adopt ointment to pack between the the the intersection of optic fibre and the intersection of structure and a hall, the optic fibre blocks water and misuses two sticks of swelling yarn longitudinally. 1500N filler yes, losses 1550NM, being smaller than 0.005dB can resume. Can be seen and damage not to have. 2000N, yes, being smaller than 0.050 to 0.090dB can resume. Angry to blow result, can reach, a little in charge of the optical cable with 216 core by 1000 more than, prevent 1500 core optic fibres in the diameter 50mm pipeline, compared with existing technology, the pipeline capacity increases. Development of the small-scale skeleton optical cable of information. Generally speaking solve the pipeline problem. The pipeline turns into a very critical problem, in order to reduce the optical cable, improve the density of the optic fibre, so 1,000 core only fine type skeleton optical cables of crooked insensitivity are developed. The diameter of the reduced optical cable exceeds 20% compared with optical cable of 1,000 core optic fibres of routine, install in a pipeline 75 millimetres with the optical cable of 31,000 core optic fibres ,Usually this kind of pipe diameter can only install the optical cable of 2 1,000 core optic fibres. Design 1,000 core small size optical cables of optical cable to adopt the following method A, crooked insensitive optic fibre for the wealth worker, B, thinnest soil layer optic fibre are taken, the skeletons of C, miniaturization, D, highly wear-resisting high fire-retardant characteristic sheath.Have revealed the regular optic fibre to take and take with the new light in Fig. two. Compared with regular optical cable, thickness and width of the optic fibre strip have been reduced by 15% and 10% respectively. The skeleton diameter is reduced to lead to the fact directly the diameter of the optical cable is reduced. The space that the multi-layer optic fibre brings with skeleton trough, as the third soil shows. This space, for receiving the parameter that the good transmission characteristic is extremely important. In order to find out the best space value, has trial-produced the optical cable products of several kinds of different space, as shown in Table one. The thickness of skeleton trough bottom is reduced, can reduce the skeleton diameter effectively, as the thickness of skeleton trough bottom is reduced, the intensity of the optical cable will be influenced. In order to receive the best mechanical intensity, know that it is most suitable for the thickness of skeleton trough bottom to appear. The result reveals, it is influenced by optic fibre type and skeleton trough space to loss the change. Crooked insensitive optic fibre compared with regular optic fibre, it used in small spaces to be effective in optical cable, can also learn from this result: Crooked insensitive optic fibre make most thin to coat the optic fibre, lead, can find out and optimize space value most. In this case with adopting the regular optic fibre to compare, the trough space of skeleton can be reduced by 40%. The sixth Fig. is the result that the size is reduced. The fire-retardant English walnut conventionally, regular polyethylene English walnut, the fire-retardant sheath of English walnut of optical cable polyethylene of small diameter. Red is a new optical cable, purple is a regular optical cable. We will present and present a lot of tiny optical cables very much, totally in order to suit, this is progress of an optical cable. The optical cable will really change after FTTH, either scamp work, the size that or the pipe arrangement needs our becoming effective, we meet such a question in actual operation course, does not allow to get without reduce the size ing, size from 10% 20% drop, meet need we. In fact the pipeline can only install 75 millimetres of two, can install three to improve.
Fourth, intellectual electric wire netting compounds the low-voltage cable with the optic fibre. Mix the network and use the compound cable structure of optic fibre conventionally, the non- armour assembles the network and uses the optic fibre compound cable: Used mainly in the intellectual Residential Area or network branch in equal division of the office building, access the photoelectricity by pipeline and distribute the case. He wants to control all ammeters in real time, should control all the family hardware in real time. And then some pictures are that we FTTH mix the network solution. The ones that used structure of the optical cable in FTTH networking are along the small size, density of optic fibre, construction help the direction develop. The intellectual electric wire netting compounds the low-voltage cable and bears the important task in China FTTH networking with the optic fibre.
SF6 Quantitative leak detector characteristic of gas The leak detector of this digital gas is a processor that is revealed quantity of monitoring gas of miniaturization, the instrument makes into the palm type, can detect the extraordinary leakage of a small amount of gas, fast, safe, free of environmental pollution. The key part of the leak detector of gas is a subminiature sensor that can detect the small change of thermal conductance rate. As the leak detector switch is opened, can return to zero in the air around automatically. Then a small-scale vacuum pump draws the air and passes the sensor continuously, as the air that takes a sample changes, can read the letting out amount and reveal on the screen directly, give out one sound of signals at the same time. Find person who let out, with detailed to visit excellent to move position, narrow, take a sample area increase, leak, orientate by some accurately until measure while being sensitive constantly. It is excellent and easy to operate, ascertain, reach various places that the instrument is furnished with long flexibility and visit. The instrument uses 4 AA batteries, can take 20 hours, there is battery low-voltage that reveals on the panel, if has not let out after starting the machine for 5 minutes, the instrument will cut out automatically. This instrument is authorized and can use in the flammable atmosphere at present, the instrument uses the helium Helium According to ml/sec ml / second The unit carries on quantitatively and corrects, have ability to measure other gas. The instrument has advanced software, the user can be placed on the automatic shelf and worked after programming, the instrument can keep the maximum reading and interference on gas of background having good shielding. The instrument offers some choice units, can read all gas ml/sec, ppm or Cu, ft/yr accurately ,And offer other advanced functions, for instance: Record, store accurate time, and mark date. Adopt the case shell of the firm synthetic material, adopt the superficial mounting technique of mixing of the present and advanced electronic product, make the products light, durable in use. Require the instrument to reach minimum maintenance, can return to zero automatically, correct automatically, the sensor no knows without requiring the periodic change any damage. The leak detector is applied to the industry, laboratory, medical trade and research department extensively.
The characteristic of the products: Change that can measure the gas and reveal quantity Digital display of the liquid crystal Follow according to the national standard NIST/NAMAS The model is employed: Leak hunting of the hydrogen; Leak hunting of SF6 gas; Leak hunting of flammable gas device of industry, apparatus, instrument, valve and control one,etc..Technical parameter:
Examine Examine Device Micro- thermal conductance pool Efficacious Quick Degree He: 2* 10-5 ml/sec SF6 2* 10-5 ml/sec CH4 1* 10-4 ml/sec R12 1* 10-4 ml/sec Loud Answer One second Electricity Source 4* AA battery Working time 20 hours School Straight Press international standard NAMAS/NIST Size weight 385* 60* 50mm takes the battery: 0.5Kg, takes the case: 1.6Kg CE Recognize Card Adopt EN500811 and EN500821 ‘ April of 1998 Electromagnetic and compatible EMC Test Protect Card One First annual ‘ Part and use
Summary: This text has explained non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer strip characteristic, properties of product, energy-conserving benefit, and reduce the effect of the noise. Point out its energy-conserving result is prominent, employ in batches, reduce the line loss effectively. Only if the brilliant alloy voltage transformer is a kind of energy-conserving new technology distribution apparatus, its energy-conserving efficiency owes much to the material that can adopt a kind of new one excellently and softly and magnetic – -Non- brilliant alloy the following is abbreviated as the non- brilliant alloy of iron base And strict design and manufacturing process.
A non- brilliant alloy strip
The strip of non- brilliant alloy includes iron 78%~81%, includes boron 13.5%, includes silicon 3.5% to 8%, in addition include metallic elements such as micro- nickel and cobalt,etc., it is confused and unordered in shape that its atom arranges the characteristic, the strip outer surface characteristic is that the silver gray with metal color and luster is thin to bring. There are 3 kinds of the width of non- brilliant alloy strip applied to in distribution field at present: Namely 142, 170, 213mm, it sees Table 1 compared with main physical performance of the silicon steel.
It is made up of the vortex losses and stagnat loss of magnetism that the empty load of the voltage transformer losses, it is proportional to thickness of the unshakable in one’s determination material that the vortex losses, in inverse proportion to resistivity, the stagnat loss of magnetism is stagnat with the magnetism to go back the area held in place with a net that the line wrap up is directly proportional to. Can find out the thickness of the strip of non- brilliant alloy is only 27μ m, and about 1/11 of the cold-reduced silicon sheet from Table 1, the resistivity is about 3 times of the cold-reduced silicon sheet, so the iron core made of non- brilliant alloy, its vortex losses unshakable in one’s more determination than what the cold-reduced silicon sheet is made and a lot smaller. The rectifying stupid strength and is smaller than 4A/m of non- brilliant alloy in addition, it is about 1/7 of the cold-reduced silicon sheet, non- brilliant magnetism of alloy stagnat to go back line area held in place with a net to make far smaller than the cold-reduced silicon sheet, so the stagnat loss of magnetism of the non- brilliant alloy is a lot smaller than that of cold-reduced silicon sheet. In sum, only if brilliant the intersection of alloy and strip one material that can have excellent and soft and magnetic, the empty load of the non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer losses very low, it is only 20% of the silicon steel voltage transformer of Model S9. Information comes from: www.tede.cn
Certainly, the non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer compares with voltage transformer of silicon steel, there are places deficient too, for example noise. The noise of the voltage transformer mainly comes from the unshakable in one’s determination magnetism and encourages, it and unshakable in one’s determination material’s magnetism causes flexible coefficient into positive correlation, can find out the saturation magnetism of the non- brilliant alloy causes the flexible coefficient to be 30* 10-6 from Table 1, it is about 3 times of the cold-reduced silicon sheet, so the noise of the non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer is slightly bigger than that of cold-reduced silicon sheet, this is that a factory producing non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer needs melting the subject that a large number of manpower and materials is solved too. Information please land: Apparatus network of power transmission and distribution
The energy-conserving results of 2 non- brilliant alloy voltage transformers When the voltage transformer runs, because empty load loss and support the intersection of person who loss and the intersection of performance and difference of parameter, so it is different to operate energy consumption every year, icon steel voltage transformer t ormer transformer come to tabulation to compare the performance parameters of SBH16 type non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer and S9 silicon steel voltage transformer t o and operate energy consumption every year with 500kVA two capacity specifications with 200kVA as follows, relatively worth being shown in Table 2.
Information comes from: www.tede.cn
Can be found out from Table 2, a SBH16 type non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer of 500kVA saves energy consumption about 9.4kWh more than S9 silicon steel voltage transformer after running for one year.
3 cost performanceAlways have a expenses law abbreviated as TOC It is a method thinking the voltage transformer energy efficiency more overall, it is according to comparing the voltage transformer price and principle of the energy consumption level synthetically, according to always having expenses to choose the voltage transformer the most low, calculate specifically the formula is: Information comes from: www.tede.cn
TOC=CtA*PoB* Pk 1 In the type, Ct is the voltage transformer price, yuan; Po losses for empty load, W; Pk losses for load, W; A losses the initial expenses of the equivalent, 48.7 yuan / W for empty load; B losses the initial expenses of the equivalent, 20.5 yuan / W for load. According to the formula 1 Calculate TOC of 200kVA and 500kVA, list in Table 3.
The empty load of the SBH16 type non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer losses and reduces 80% compared with silicon steel series S9; And require than JB/T 10318 ” oil immersion type unshakable in one’s determination distribution voltage transformer technical parameter of non- brilliant alloy that ” reduce by 25%.
4.3 The noise is low to mention above because the magnetism with material of non- brilliant alloy causes the flexible coefficient to be bigger than the cold-rolled silicon steel, it is general bigger than S9 silicon steel voltage transformer so if has not taken the noise of the non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer of the special noise reduction measure, but believed the technical staff of the company since introducing GE technology in 1998, through the trying to find out and proving repeatedly of a few years, have already grasped some measures of reducing the non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer noise effectively, believe the non- brilliant noise that is worthy of changing of 400kVA oil immersion that the company produces can reach less than 45dB at present. Information comes from: www.tede.cn
4.4 Dependability high to believe company to be never disconnected to optimize the design plan, respect of adopting the advanced technological process and setting up the strict detection project etc. is paid and checked on every non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer strictly.
4.4.1 Design the respect to leak the magnetic field strongly and reducing axial electric power in order to improve the tip of winding, the low-voltage winding adopts the foil of copper to wind; The structure happens suddenly and shorts out by resisting in the device stature; Only if the brilliant oil immersion is worthy of turning into the fuel tank and adopting the totally enclosed structure of rigidity, the fuel tank can bear the pressure without seepage of 75kPa and not deform; The intersection of fuel tank and top set up one the intersection of air and of body, can stop level pigeonhole sleeve pipe with the intersection of case lid and sealed place, ooze phenomenon of oil, meet requirements for the non-maintaining one; In order to guarantee the safe operation of the voltage transformer, can contain opening on the case wall of one side of the fuel tank automatically or pressure closed to release the valve.
4.4.2 Craft Letter.cn
On the dedicated device which produces the non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer, according to assembly craft and procedure of GE advanced unique non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer of manufacture, produce every non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer.
4.4.3 Measure the project and assault the test of the whole wave thunder and lightning and is listed in and dispatched from the factory the experimental project, and peak value is higher than 25% of national standard; The finished product qualification rate of the products reaches above 99.8. Information please step on5 conclusions Information comes from: Apparatus network of power transmission and distribution
The greatest advantage of the non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer is that the empty load losses low, the operating cost is low, can reduce the line loss of the electric wire netting effectively after running in batches, the energy-conserving result is prominent. Shanghai believe electric Co., Ltd. in absorb, introduce technology, guarantee serial properties of product and reduce at the non- brilliant the intersection of alloy and the intersection of noise and this subject of voltage transformer, having done some concrete work, has already made the effect, especially can control the non- brilliant noise that is worthy of changing of 400kVA oil immersion below 45dB.
Zhang RenKun 1942 ,Male, senior engineer, is engaged in the non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer and research and develop making and management;Ling Jian 1965 ,Female, senior engineer, is engaged in designing studying with non- brilliant alloy voltage transformer.
Summary: As the production technology is being developed constantly, the apparatus is updated, traditional regular overhauling can’t already meet the present production form. The development of dependability technology has offered method and theory for the fact that the apparatus is maintained to support. The maintenance method taking dependability as the centre, maintain the formulation step of the outline according to dependability, organize discussion to overhauling the method of SFE circuit breaker. Confirm way of maintenance of dependability Information please land: Apparatus network of power transmission and distribution
1Maintain the way afterwards: It is to carry on maintenance to maintain the way afterwards after the apparatus breaks down, make the apparatus breaking down resume a maintenance way of the normal function. 2 Maintain the way fixedly and preventatively: According to the trouble statistical data of experience and apparatus, stipulate every other period of definite time carries on planned maintenance to the apparatus, the trouble taking place before stipulated time, carry on maintenance afterwards. ’s information comes from: Apparatus network of power transmission and distribution 3Maintain the way according to different conditions or let measures regularly : Pass and measure and get the state of the apparatus fixedly or irregularly, and so as to confirm the maintenance opportunity. ’s information will come4Control and maintain the way or let monitors online : Through controlling, the monitoring system controls the working state of the apparatus continuously, did not carry on maintenance until when finding a certain trouble sign of the apparatus. 4.2 Confirm that analyzes decision law in logic of maintaining way
Generally confirm and maintain the way that can adopt the logic that the following picture 1 show and analyze decision law. According to the trouble statistical data of the apparatus, confirm the properties of the equipment fault, it is contingency trouble or consume type trouble that clear. Adopt the equipment fault mode, influence and endanger one degree of analytical methods, confirm whether the trouble of the mechanical spare part will cause other troubles, security, environment influence consequences. The economic loss that may be produced after happening according to the equipment fault, confirm which kind of most economic maintenance ways to adopt. It is analyzed that the equipment fault uses the influence situation of dependability to the apparatus. Maintainability and can be monitoredding of the analytical equipment, according to the complexity of device structure, use the choice principles of dependability and maintenance way, determine the concrete maintenance way. ’s information please land: Apparatus network of power transmission and distribution
Fig. 1 confirms that analyzes decision law in logic of maintaining way 5 confirms that maintain the rank Repairing, light maintenance, overhauling three kinds before there are the current maintenance ranks. Before build to to be random trouble maintain afterwards,there are to resume not transmitting power as soon as possible on purpose, the general work load is not big. It is maintained that the ones that generally mean not needing to disintegrate in light maintenance are planned, in order to test, procuratorial work, clearing up, lubricating as the main fact, or change the single simple part. The ones that overhaul and mean needing to disintegrate and overhaul, change the part in a large amount are planned to maintain the way, the unit work load is large, lose electrical power for long time, overhaul it completely. Present the intersection of SF6 and circuit breaker according to non-maintaining to design generally, maintainability is bad, but dependability is relatively high too. Regular maintenance relies mainly on checking, cleaning. The main trouble takes place on the electric return circuit, there are few troubles of the mechanical part. The work of light maintenance is directed primarily to controlling return circuit and SF6 gas to manage. It is directed primarily to killing the arc room overhauling the work, limit because of overhauling the condition, it is difficult to launch at the scene, depend on returning to the factory to overhaul more. With the technological progress, increasingly many state amount can all find the method to monitor, make the great partial fault mode of the circuit breaker in can monitor ing state. Positive performance detection method, employ and maintain according to different conditions, it is a development trend. This uses dependability in order to improve the apparatus, remove a hidden danger ahead of time, reducing loses electrical power for time, improving overhauls plannedly and establishes the foundation.  Qiu ShiYi. The electric equipment dependability is maintained [M ]. Beijing: China Electric Power Publishing House, 2007. Wu Bo of [2 ], send at dawn. Maintain and the decision model [M ] in mechanical system dependability. Beijing: The publishing house of chemical industry, 2006.
 electric power-supply branch of entrepreneur’s association of China. Switchyard is overhauled [M ]. Beijing: China Electric Power Publishing House, 2006. Wang YongHua of [4 ]. The state of the vacuum circuit breaker monitors and diagnoses analysis [J ] with the trouble. The electricity is tested, 2005, 6 . Fan TingWei of [5 ], Li Rui, Huo FengMing. SB6 new circuit breaker overhauled and canvassed [J ]. The power technology in Hebei, 2006, 2 .
There is no work to compensate, publicised early in terms of its concept, it is with the aid of having no work to compensate the apparatus to offer the essential inactive power, in order to improve the power factor of the system, reduce energy consumption, improve the voltage quality of the electric wire netting. Without rational disposition principle that work compensates, do not have basic state of power consumption of work that can be found out from the power network, the networks and apparatus of power transmission and distributions at all levels should consume certain amounts of inactive power, it is the largest with the proportion of the low-voltage distribution network particularly. In order to reduce the transmission of the inactive power to loss to the maximum extent, raise the efficiency of the apparatus of power transmission and distribution, have work compensate disposition of apparatus, should until ” whether hierarchical compensation, balanced in situ” Principle,reasonable overall arrangement.
1 The overall equilibrium is combined with some equilibrium, rely mainly on some. Information. Centralized compensation, the ones that mainly compensated the main voltage transformer had no work to loss, and reduce switchyard so electricity of work does not had transmission line of electricity, thus the one that reduced network of supplying power had no work to loss. But the one that can’t reduce the distribution network has no work to loss. It work through switchyard because need user so under if you can’t mix by electric wire way load end, send. So in order to reduce the line loss effectively, must make sure where the inactive power happens, where to compensate. So, the middle, low-voltage distribution network should rely mainly on dispersing and is compensated.
4 Lower and decrease and adjust and press and combine together, rely mainly on lowering and decreasing.
2,Influence the main factor of the power factor Exchanges the power consuming apparatus in its working course mainly in production of the power factor, besides consuming the active power, also need inactive power. It is at active power P will certainly when,it reduce by Q inactive power, then power be can improved factor. In extreme cases, act as Q =At 0 o’clock, the rate of its strength =1. So it is the requirement of inactive power of reducing the power consuming apparatus to raise the essence of the issue of the power factor.2. 1,Asynchronous motor and electric voltage transformer are the capital equipment which consumes the inactive power
The air crack among stator and rotor of the asynchronous motor determines the asynchronous motor need not more having a main factor of work. And inactive power that asynchronous motor consume to will certainly support lower the intersection of inactive power and the intersection of value-added and two part, make up. So the power factor to be improved the asynchronous motor should prevent the empty load of the motor from running and improving the supporting rate as much as possible. It is the inactive power of its empty load that the voltage transformer consumes the main component which does not have work, it and size of the supporting rate are irrelevant. Therefore, in order to improve the power factors of power system and enterprise, the voltage transformer does not run in conformity with empty load or long it is in supporting the state of running low. 2. 2,The voltage goes beyond stipulating the range will cause very great influence on the power factor too to supply powerWhen the voltage is higher than 10% of the specified value to supply power, because of the influence of the magnetic No. saturation, the inactive power will increase quickly, relevant materials statistics show, the voltage, as 110% o’clock of specified value as supplying power, the general factory has no work to increase by about 35%. When the voltage is lower than the specified value to supply power, the inactive power is reduced correspondingly and made their power factor improve to some extent too. But supply power the voltage reduces the normal work that will influence the electric equipment. So, should take measures to make the voltage of power supply of the power system remain stable as much as possible. 2 . 3,The fluctuation of the frequency of the electric wire netting will cause certain influence on asynchronous electrical machinery and inactive power of magnetization of the voltage transformer too
2 . 4,The above has expounded the fact that influences some main factors of the power factor of the power system, so must seek some effectual some practical approaches that can make the low-voltage power factor of power network improve, make low-voltage network can realize have no work to be balanced in situ, reach and lower and decrease the energy-conserving result. 3,The low-voltage distribution network has no method that work compensates It improve by power because of main method is to last technology as work, mainly there are three kinds of methods that we usually adopt: Compensate at random, with device compensating, following paying for.
3. 1,Compensate at random Information please land: Apparatus network of power transmission and distribution
Compensate, connect, pass the control, protector and electrical machinery and low-voltage condenser bank and motor at random, throw cutting at the same time. What compensated and suitable for compensating the motor had no work to consume at random, rely mainly on having no work to mend excitation, this way can restrain the electrical power consuming unit from not having work load well. The advantage compensated at random is: When power consuming apparatus run, have work compensate, put one’s back into, power consuming apparatus, when the stoppage in transit, compensate apparatus, withdraw too, and does not need to frequently adjust and compensate the capacity. Have with little investment taking location to be light installation easy disposing conveniently and flexibly, safeguard the simple, low grade of crash rate.3. 2,Mean with device compensating that connects the low-voltage condenser on side two times of voltage transformer of distribution through the low-voltage insurance with device compensating, by way of compensating the compensation without work of empty load of voltage transformer of the distribution. The ones that are worthy of becoming during light year or empty load do not have empty load excitation that work load is mainly the voltage transformer there is no work, it is that the electrical power consuming unit does not have main part of work load to have no work to worthy of turning into empty load, for worthy of becoming in underloading, part this loss proportion of quantity very large, thus cause the intersection of electric rate and increase of unit price supply power. Information comes from: www.tede.cn
With device the advantage that is compensated: Wiring is simple, maintenance management is convenient, can be compensated and worthy of turning into empty load and having no work effectively, balanced in situ to restrain the rural power grids from not having work basing that is carried on one’s shoulder or back and make this part have no work, thus it is worthy of turning into the utilization ratio improving, does not have the work network to decrease to reduce, have higher economy, have no one of the most effective means of work to compensate at present.
3. 3,Follow and compensate
It means that compensates and throws and cuts the device as controlling protectors for not there is not working to follow and compensate, compensate the low-voltage condenser bank in the big user 0.4kv mother compensation way on the line. Suitable for the intersection of 100kVA and worthy of, turning usering, can substitute at random, twoing kinds of compensation ways of up toing etc. into while being specialized above, it is effectual to compensate. It is that a operation way is flexible to follow the advantage compensated, running safeguards the work load to be little, than first two kinds of compensation way relative extension of life-span, run more reliably. But it is relatively large that the shortcoming controls protector complicatedness, first-phase investment. But when the economy of these three kinds of compensation ways is close, should select for use and follow and compensate the way preferably.
Summary: The article has introduced systematic arrangement principle, system forming, main function and application of safe precaution in detail, and made brief analysis to its existing problem and development trend.
With the fast development of China’s economy, the constant improvement of the living standard, people have already developed to pay attention to the humanized demand for the house from meeting the simple inhabitancy function at first to the concept at home. The safe, comfortable, swift, convenient intellectual Residential Area, has already become the major trend of development of house, among them, security is primary goal. The realization of the intellectual security of Residential Area, except the factor that people are, mainly depend on the intelligent safe precaution system of the Residential Area.
A system of Ann dyke sets up the principle
With the purpose of ensuring the security and the technology set up takes precautions against the system, is called the safe precaution system. It includes finding that invades destruction in time with modern physics and electronic technology, produce the sound and is only called the police to hinder and frighten criminal, picture and sound of site of the accident of faithful record to offer the evidence of solving a case, and remind attenbants to take various apparatuses of the appropriate physical precautionary measures. The system of Ann dyke forms
Generally pass and install the safe precaution device in circle, key position and household’s room of week of Residential Area in the intellectual Residential Area, and is managed in unison by the property administrative center of Residential Area, to improve the safe precaution level of the Residential Area. The intelligent safe precaution system of the Residential Area, is mainly formed by following subsystems.
2. Burglar alarming system of a family
The installation family guards against theft or turns to the warning device for help promptly, link with computer system of administrative center of property of Residential Area in household’s room, records the warning incident, or report to guards’ room of local police station of possession directly in real-time processing.
2. 2 visitors talkback systematically
Enter households of the intersection of door and, install automatically controlled burglary-resisting door and pronunciation, may look at, talkback device or in population of building unit, the household can control and open the burglary-resisting door.
2. The circle defends crossing the warning system in 3 weeks
Set up, cross the border search unit to closed intellectual the intersection of Residential Area and peripheral enclosure of management, and link with computer system of administrative center of property of Residential Area, can find the persons who cross the border illegally in time and can reveal warning highway section and warning time in real time, record and keep warning information automatically.
2. 4 TVs of monitoring systems
According to the needs of intellectual safe precaution management of Residential Area, main entrance and common to build important the intersection of position and the intersection of installation and camera, control in Residential Area. The property administrative center of Residential Area can switch over the systematic picture automatically or manually, control cloud platform of the camera and lens, make a recording on videotape to the important positions controlled for a long time.
2. 5 electrons patrol more systematically
The installation electron patrols more systematically in the intellectual Residential Area, security personnel patrol personnel according to presuming and patrolling and giving the record watch in route. The property of Residential Area computer of administrative center can read and patrol the information logging in in real time, thus patrol security personnel personnel realize even more that supervise and manage effectively.
2. Systems of 6 entrance guards
And share the garage door to set up the entrance guard machine in the intellectual Residential Area gate, important public gate, the ability of person who only holds the IC card, open the corresponding entrance guard machine through the card reading machine. It is very difficult for the idler to enter illegally.
3 Ann defends systematic function and application
The safe precaution system in practical application is formed comprehensively, organically by a plurality of available subsystems, , controlling tightly, comprehensive management of setting up defenses in depth, let the owner live in the invisible theft-proof network, comfortable more safely, than the tangible theft-proof network.
3. Burglar alarming system of a family
Lay all kinds of sensors in important place and area of the family, replace the reinforcing bar theft-proof network of the traditional home furnishing, let owners not have feeling of imprisoning in the cage again.
The family burglar alarming system is managed host computer, family alarm, sensor by security personnel’s centre and transmits the cable not use at the time of wireless communication way Composition. The sensor mainly has infrared ray detector, hot sense detector, glass broken detector, window the magnetism, door magnetism,etc., users can set up the sensor of different classes in seats such as a door, sitting room, balcony, exterior window,etc. according to the needs of reality, in order to the persons who survey trespassing. The family alarm is generally installed near a door of people, so that the host presumes the state of deploying troops on garrison duty while going out; The host removes the burglary-resisting system within time of time delay when goes home, so as not to report by mistake. Family alarm and security personnel’s centre manage the host computer to network, when the illegal intruder appearsing, the family host computer calls the police, managing the host computer will reveal warning place and property, security personnel’s centre can determine the police case in view of the above, prevent the crime in time.
If the building do not have fire autoalarm of installation that link the system, the household can also install the smoke sense detector in bedroom and sitting room, in order to survey the fire; Install the gas detector in the kitchen, in order to measure the coal gas to let out the density, these devices can be connected with family alarm. In addition, the each household sets up the emergency call button in more latent my place in sitting room and bedroom, meet and rob, fall ill and can call the police to the control centre in time when the emergency, make households helped in time.
3. 2 visitors talkback systematically
In Residential Area the intersection of housing unit and population or enter households of the intersection of door and, install visitor, talkback system, decline the stranger to visit, exercise restraint in trespassing, the ones that keep living environment are private and dense, safe and quiet.
The visitor talkbacks in the system host computer, indoor extension, automatically controlled burglary-resisting door, management host computer can select from talkbacking Make up with transmitting the cable. Talkback host computer divide for being invisible to can look at that talkback in making peace again. Through looking at the system of talkbacking, the householder can understand visitor’s situation more ocularly, control the lock to open. This system can adopt the networking type, every one talkbacks host computer and security personnel’s centre manage the host computer to network, security personnel can understand household’s SOS at any time in the centre. The owner in the Residential Area can also realize calling out with centre of the property and household and can depend on that talkback with mouth, if guests come to visit, can be got in touch by security personnel and household, confirm whether to receive.
3. The circle defends crossing the warning system in 3 weeks
The circle defends crossing the warning system and making preventing crossing over the boundary line, way, wall for week illegally as one’s own duty in week, form and invade and touch off the alarm signal illegally, to invading the behavior real-time video illegally, to person who invades legal person emit sound, light, the intersection of person who is frightened, hinders and safe control measures.
The circle defends the more systematic by the infrared ray to penetrating device, the receiver, warning host computer and transmitting the cable to make up in commonly used week. On the rail of Residential Area, install the intellectual detector of infrared many light beam of an appearance, make up for community week the circle does not leave defending crossing over the warning system illegally of dead angle. Meanwhile, controller adopt intelligent fuzzy control technology, because the intersection of leaf, incidental, trials and hardship, flying bird,etc. and little animal pass through what rail cause, report by mistake in order to prevent from. When crossing illegally, the detector conveys the alert feeling to the central guards’ room immediately, demonstrate in the electronic map that crosses the area, very automatic chain of the system starts the regional searchlight of the circle for week, switch over the monitoring system camera of closed-circuit TV, convey the picture to the central guards’ room, carry on the video in invading people’s course illegally, so that the public security department solves a case to investigate and verify. The control centre tells security personnel to reach the scene in time at the same time, in case that illegal personnel commit a crime and succeed. Can also make use of hot sense type infrared ray detector or microwave cable detector,etc. to deploy troops on garrison duty.
It is an important measure that the circle defends to emit the sound, light, frighten, hinder to the illegal invador in week too, but been ignored in a lot of intelligent Residential Areas. The persons who can make people invade through offering the strong light have no place to hide, be frightened and hindered invadors, supplement the light source for the video system at the same time. The sound warns that can admonish invadors with the civilization, reflects the civilization image of the noble Residential Area, but while designing this measure, will certainly demand to suit measures to local conditions, avoid disturbing citizens.
3. 4 TVs of monitoring systems
Set up the camera to positions such as the main passway, parking area of the residential community, lift sedan-chair railway carriage or compartment,etc. appropriately according to the actual conditions of Residential Area, achieve the effective monitoring purpose. At present, generally adopt the black-and-white camera of outdoor high definition to carry on the real-time video gradually and completely with that of application technology of the network in invading the behavior illegally, network digital camera put out already, solve installation in the traditional technology from the difficult problem fundamentally, can in large range and long to spread on the Cheng setting up the camera at will.
The monitoring system of the TV is made up by camera, matrix controller, video cassette recorder, monitor, transmitting the cable,etc., installing the camera in important area and public place of Residential Area, the attenbant of security personnel’s centre can find out about the things happened of Residential Area in an all-round way through the video wall; Through the video cassette recorder of the hard disk can be recorded in real time, in order to investigate and verify; Switch over and operate in the control cabinet through the matrix controller, follow and monitor. The infrared alarm signal of the circle can be regarded as the warning input signal of the corresponding regional camera in week, once warning, the corresponding camera is autotracked. The system can to control partly adopt the digital picture movement of intelligence to follow the alarm to realize. Camera set up can adopt fixed camera, all-round the intersection of cloud and the intersection of TV station and camera, the intersection of hemisphere and camera, infrared camera,etc. respectively according to concrete situation and requirement of position, camera scene variable and burnt and thing distance, TV station can turn the cloud from side to side from head to foot. When there is less camera quantity, the video signal of every camera and cable of the control signal in the cloud platform can be radiated from security personnel’s centre to every controll point directly. When there is more camera quantity, divide block or set up the video matrix according to the floor one, collected the video signal of its nearby camera and control signal in the cloud platform by the video matrix, and then concentrate on sending to security personnel’s centre through the optical cable, so can reduce the cable quantity of outside line of the room, the network structure is clear, benefit maintenance management at the same time. Security personnel’s centre generally sets up many monitors and makes up the video wall, the values are patrolled and inspected or utilized the picture to cut apart and reveal the situation of other cameras at the same time, one set specialized to suspicious to freeze a bit, enlarge, editor, the others large one reveal other important positions.
3. 5 electrons patrol more systematically
It is systematic for electron to patrol for reach to patrol personnel go on, supervise, guarantee it patrol, put in place, design one administrative system that develop even more effectively. Patrol even more personnel hold the patrolling and inspecting device and press already appointed patrolling the route and registering to the information button in fixed time, patrol personnel finish the patrolling and inspecting device insert computer of the administrative center through the specialized communication cable behind the task even more, read people’s data from the patrolling and inspecting device in the patrolling more systematic management software of the computer, whether give the personnel of tour of inspection and patrol according to fixed time, number of times, route after counting, analyzing, putting the data in order. In this way the administrative staff can be very clear to patrolling personnel’s working state.
Patrol more systematically from patrolling and inspecting device, the information button, security personnel’s centralized computer and transmitting the cable to make up. Information button is set up at main road, blind spot, dead angle,etc. in the residential area, the centralized computer stores security personnel and patrols the route in advance, registers for time,etc.; When security personnel have not registered, the centralized computer will remind attenbants to find out about the situation immediately, discover the problems early.
Users can set up the special patrol and stand set up the information button in each vital part place and position in the Residential Area ,Set for large routes of patrolling independently according to the system capacity, and the serial number stands for the patrol of each route to compose the name, it can make the patrolling and inspecting device reveal the name of station while outputting the report, and when leading the function automatically, can reveal the next stop. The route of patrolling is the permutation sequentially of the station of patrolling, put route of this patrol together into the patrolling and inspecting device, can make it record the anticipated patrol data correctly, and output the report correspondingly. The time restriction of allowing users to set for between patrolling and standing even, if examine early and examine late, the report will reveal this situation.
3. Systems of 6 entrance guards
Entrance guard’s system, is also called the control system of population out. Its main use is to record personnel’s business turn over situation automatically constantly, limit personnel’s business turn over area and time, refuse unwelcome personnel to enter courteously, the effective legitimate interests of protecting the user at the same time.
The system includes management software, data collector, controller, enters the information button of the door, electronic lock, exports button, warning sensor and warning loudspeaker. Enter the information for it is accepted that personnel inputting of information button of the door, and then convert to the electric signal and send to the controller. The personal information that the controller accepts the apparatus of the entrances and exits and sends, store and send to the previous grade of computer through the collector. All collectors and controllers in the management software administrative system of the computer, set up, accept the information sent to them, send and control the order to them, finish analysis and processing of all information in the system.
4 Ann defends the systematic existing problem
4. 1 is set up improperly
Development, designing unit defend systematic understanding to Ann insufficiently, the systematic design, disposition to safe precaution are improper, so all subsystem can be combined, lead to the fact and invest wasting. Because Ann defends the products producer numerously, every product is incompatible, cause users to choose the limitation of the products, often leave over a lot of technological questions to the integrating trader or unit in charge of construction during design, cause Ann it defends systematic designs to be unreasonable, system integration performance bad poor device layout, comprehensive wiring getting unstandard.
Pursue the function to superpose simply while setting up Ann and defending the system in some Residential Areas, the fabrication cost rises, might not be practical, technology might not be ripe either. Meanwhile, it is complicated for the complicated system to result in operating, require the technology that users know more more too, it feels very inconvenient to let consumers use.
In addition, because trade management and examining and approving the system incongruously, make some systems set up alone such as the automatic warning system of the fire ,It is not complete to cause Ann to defend the whole function of the products, can not reach the intelligent result.
4. It is unified that 2 is scarce
It is mostly imported products that Ann defends the products, there are less competitive producers of China, the intersection of production and standard of product these, system form and interface way,etc. the same, make every system unable to coordinate and act each other, unable to realize concentrating on networking, it is difficult to reach the ideal intelligent result.
At present, Ann defends lacking unified design specification, construction norm and standard of acceptance of work systematically. Some current relevant norms can’t meet intelligently and fit the system -proof technical requirement either, serious consequence that have caused a lot of project design plans to be unreasonable, construction is off quality, the acceptance of work is not up to standard of.
4. 3 stability of running is bad
At present, stability has been unable to guarantee much already Ann of installation prevented the products from running, its main reason is: Ann defends the products and is based on computer, restrictions such as computer crashing, handling capacity,etc.; Ann prevents from system’s regarding network as the tie, the perplexing of factor of attacking by the virus, hacker etc.; It is mostly the weak electric products that Ann defends the products, the working voltage is low, the comprehensive ability to resist interference of the system is relatively bad, easy to be interfered with by internal and external factors such as harmonic wave, wave welling up, thunder and lightning, noise, especially earthing do well, interfere with while being easy, even will cause the system crash.
5 Ann defends the systematic development trend
5.1 Ann defends systematic digitization
With the informationization and arrival of digitized era, ” digitized Ann defends ” A dark horse. Its technological developing direction is based on figure CCD technology and infrared lighting light source technology, develop towards infrared video system of the superelevation sensitivity; Based on analog signal video control, take precautions against system to develop with totally digitilized the intersection of video and monitoring system; The system equipment is developed in intelligent, digitization, module and networked direction. Digitized Ann defends the products to record all-roundly, and store various flow and warning information in digital way. Since 2000, the figure controlled the products to enter fast developing period, especially the new high-tech enterprise that some technological capability and fund were with strong background entered Ann to defend the market, have prevented the industry from pouring into new vigor for Ann. The products are controlled the video host computer by the original figure too, develop into camera of the network, transmission equipment of the network, transmission equipment of the telephone and professional digital hard disk video cassette recorder DVR Wait for many kinds of products.
5. 2 Ann defends the system integratedly
Ann is system -proof and integrated to include two respects: The integrating of one’s own function of the system that Ann prevents from: Merge functions such as the image, pronunciation, entrance guard, alarm,etc. in the same network framework platform, whole solution of offering the intellectual Residential Area to control safely; Ann defends the system and other intelligent systematic integrating of Residential Area: Integrate good communication system, service system and property administrative system which defend system and intellectual Residential Area,etc., so can share line of a piece of data and the same computer network, share the same database. Such input, get twice the result with half the effort, get rid of the trouble of connecting up repeatedly, safeguarding repeatedly completely.
5. 3 Ann prevents the technology China from producing and melting
At present, are developing and used in the magnetic electroinduction technology of coaxial cable that the circle defends orienting accurately in week in the whole world, and the microwave cable of one factory of China has already begun to introduce to the market. The cable can principle of effect come, make a reservation accurately whom circle take place attempt, cut off and climb the invasion behavior intruding upon week through being quiver to make an uproar, and position in 3m accurately. This system uses the digital signal processing method to make a reservation accurately, will not be because of the noise, wind, rain, fog weather or transient vibrations of vehicle influence and cause and report by mistake. These technical specifications, Chinese Ann prevents the producer from going all out with technological development, shortens the distance with the developed country, strive to reach or exceed the international most advanced level in some respects. ” 15 ” During this time, it is the autotracking of development that China fits the trade -proof main task and locks the system, remote many way warning picture transmission systems, in order to improve to control the quality of the products. Develop the systematic products with independent intellectual property right, China grows the market share of the products while improving.
The change of science and technology, the development of the computer technology popularizes, makes the intellectual Residential Area emerge in people’s voice to bright life rapidly, make it appear the unprecedented change not to fit products -proof development. Believe under the guidance of human-oriented idea, various are with better function, safeguard safer, the new system with more personal information will arise at the historic moment, will bring the facility to daily life, thus stimulate out the broader market.
Plain minister of a king. Tong YueZhong. ” the intelligent system of residential community builds main point and technology and leads “. China Construction Industry Press, 2003
2 <>. China Standard Press, 2003
3 <>. Chinese Plan Press, 2000
First, operation maintenance of SF6 circuit breaker
1,SF6 circuit breaker Switch In the course of running, overhauling, must carry out and overhaul the craft and relevant and overhaul the rules;
2,Making an inspection tour and is checked while running
a Check high-pressure insulating part outside of switch ‘ Porcelain set Should be intact, have not damaged, been dirty and corrupt and the phenomenon of holding in place with a net discharging flashes;
b Contrast the temperature – the curve of pressure, observe the manometer or the tape points out the density controller Point out in the fixed range, and record the pressure, temperature value regularly;
c Dividing, shutting the position indicator of the floodgate should be pointed out correctly, and divide, shut the floodgate and should be put in place;
d The whole fastener should not become flexible, loss;
e There should not be unusual sound within electrical machinery and circuit breaker of energy storage;
f There should not be burnt flavor, smoke and burn the phenomenon in the dividing the floodgate coil into, shutting of high-pressure switch;
g Earthing the earthing outer cover of high-pressure switch or support should be good;
h High-pressure the intersection of switch and outer cover or speak, it works up the organization case to be should be intact and having no corrosion;
I High-pressure switch every should have damage, not out of shape and corrosion serious, etc.
Second, disintegrate and overhaul technological process and requirement
1,Overhaul personnel, wear the gas mask set SF6 gas in the circuit breaker free, shed ‘ The gas emitted should be discharged through 10% NaOH aqueous solution ,Then smoke the vacuum, the absolute pressure should reach 133Pa, and then wash for 3 times with the nitrogen, inflates and washes the pressure 0.2MPa gas is still discharged through NaOH aqueous solution ;
2,After overhaul personnel, wear protective clothing and gas mask, seal Gael, open the intersection of SF6 and circuit breaker, withdraw for on-the-spot 30 minutes temporarily;
3,Overhaul to personnel and wear the gas mask or oxygen respirator and protect gloves to take the adsorbent out, remove the dust with dust catcher and brush, wash metal and insulating one with propanone;
4,Dismantle offal treatment to after being neutral ‘ After putting into 20% NaOH aqueous solution and soaking for 12 hours Bury deeply;
5,Mainly check and change and abrade, burn and damage and corrode the more serious part after disintegrating, change fastener, spring, insulating one, already aging sealing enclosing, insulating one, and change adsorbents ‘ Changing adsorbent and offal under should be dealt carefully with according to relevant regulations When; 6 Wash all spare part again ‘ Use industrial alcohol ,Insulating one is sent into baker and assembled after ℃80- 100 is baked for 4 hours, the adsorbent is assembled after ℃500- 550 is dried for 2 hours, later, assembled according to reprocessing standard and customer’s special requirement, should be fast while assembling, and close to the noumenonn in time;
6,After assembling wholly, smoked the vacuum to 133Pa immediately, kept the vacuum pump operating for more than 30 minutes, then stop the vacuum pump and read vacuum degree value after observing for 30 minutes, watch quietly more than 5 hours more, read vacuum degree value for the second time, it is qualified that the difference of two reading is not greater than 65Pa, otherwise, find out that leaks gas to click. Want, prevent operating absolutely release vacuum, so as not to cause the intersection of vacuum and the intersection of pump and accident of pouring in down a chimney;
7,Dry and deal with the inflatable pipeline, fill and enter the qualified SF6 gas to the specified pressure 20 ℃ ;
8,After inflating for 24 hours, measure the leaking gas rate with SF6 gas leak detector with sensitivity of 10-8atm.cm3/s, demand every year the leaking gas rate is less than or equal to 1%, the little water content is less than or equal to 150PPm 20 ℃ ,Especially should pay attention to places such as the pipeline, piecing, valve,etc.;
9,After the high-pressure switch is assembled, the main technical parameter should reach factory’s standard out, and factory’s standard goes on mechanical characteristic and electricity performance test, up to and is dispatched from the factory and required, dispatched from the factory according to produce;
10,Wash and overhaul personnel the shelter apparatus used to want to have a bath after the work.
Third, SF6 circuit breaker disintegrate and overhaul
1,When the following situations appearing, SF6 circuit breaker should return in the factory and disintegrate and overhaul
2,The running time of high-pressure switch has already been up to 10 years; There is anomaly of apparatus safe operation of serious influence after checking;
3,Have operated the number of times and already reached the number of times of machinery life-span that the high-pressure switch has stipulated;
4,The ones that turned on and broke the electric current and reached the high-pressure switch to stipulate turned on giving up the number value totally totally.
Fourth, may deal with accident analysis and problem
1,Leak gas analysis and deal with ‘ The density relay signals
1 The density relay signals
a The relay movement value of the density presents the error, signal by mistake, adjust or change it; Two wiring break down, look for, make mistakes some, correct wiring;
b The noumenonn of the circuit breaker leaks gas, find out the reason of leaking gas, do to dealing with again.
2 When the normal seepage of SF6 gas is until the density relay signals, can invigorate vital energy according to SF6 gas pressure – curve of temperature, make it reach specified pressure; Can go on under the charged state of running while invigorating vital energy.
3 When SF6 gas pressure drops or a gauge pressure appears rapidly, should withdraw and run immediately; And analyze whether it is or not and cause by following reasons and leak gas:
a It is problematic to weld a quality, the welding seam leaks;
b Casting surface leaks gas ‘ There are hole of needles or sand holes ;
c Seal and enclose wearing out or seal the bolt, whorl in the position and become flexible;
d The gas pipeline junction leaks gas;
e The manometer or density relay leaks gas, should change. Find out the reason of leaking gas specifically carefully, overhaul under the circumstances that the manufacturer assists. When the serious leakage trouble takes place in the circuit breaker in operation, when run or overhaul personnel need to be close to the apparatus, should notice that is close to windward direction, should wear the gas mask if necessary, wear the safety clothing, should also pay attention to and the safe distance with electric apparatus.
2,Refuse to shut or shut the floodgate speed on the low side
a Shut floodgate core journey little, suck shut finally, can trip while orientating component and gyro wheel, adjust the journey of the core;
b Shut the floodgate in short-term continuously, make the coil generate heat, shut the strength of the floodgate to reduce;
c The auxiliary switch has not been changed or kept in touch badly, need to adjust, and check whether the contact of the auxiliary switch is burnt, burn changing;
d Permanent deformation takes place to shut the floodgate spring, it is insufficient to shut the work of the floodgate;
e Shut the floodgate coil and break or burn out, should change;
f Shut the core of floodgate to block, and adjust, make its sport flexible in conformity with the inspection;
g The fan-shaped board has not reset or too little with the interval of the semi-axis ‘ Smaller than 1mm ,Reason to change improperly, should revitalize;
h Fan-shaped board and fastening amount of the semi-axis are too small, should adjust within the range of 2- 4mm, or fan-shaped board and semi-axis have damage that should be changed to fasten the place;
I It is on the low side to shut the hardness of heat treatment of gyro wheel oriented on the piece or cam in floodgate, there is phenomenon out of shape, should change;
j The organization or noumenonn has cards that hinder the phenomenon, need to carry on the slow motion and check or disintegrate the inspection, find out the not flexible position holds and adjusts again;
k Divide the intersection of floodgate and the intersection of return circuit and bunches of electricity, namely in the course of shutting the floodgate, divide the intersection of floodgate and coil have electric current voltage their exceed, operate the voltage by 30% of the amount ,Divide the core of floodgate to jack, should check whether wiring of return circuit two times is mistaken at this moment, and correct the mistake;
l The power is pressed and lowered too big, shut the end voltage of the floodgate coil and can not reach the stipulating value, should adjust the power and add the thick lead wire at this moment;
m Control return circuit put through, want where does it check broken circuit, such as wiring of coil carry sub the intersection of place and lead wire, compress tightly and keep in touch bad, etc, check that goes wrong, carry on the treatment of pertinence.
3,Refuse to divide or divide the floodgate speed low
a Semi-axis and fan-shaped board adjust and does not want to be, the fastening amount is too big fastening amount should generally adjust within the range of 2- 4mm ;
b The auxiliary switch has not been changed or kept in touch badly, need to adjust, and check whether the contact of the auxiliary switch is burnt, burn changing;
c Divide the intersection of floodgate and core, reset or have Carlos to be stagnat totally, should check that divide the floodgate electro-magnet to assemble and block phenomena, if should get rid of;
d Divide the floodgate coil and break or burn out and should change;
e Divide the return circuit parameter of the floodgate to cooperate with improperly, dividing the end voltage of the floodgate coil stipulates the number value, should revitalize;
f Control return circuit put through, want where does it check broken circuit, then go on to dealing with.
g Organization or noumenonn have Carlos hinder phenomenon, influence, divide the floodgate speed into, but divide or disintegrate and check slowly, reassemble;
h Divide floodgate spring into, draw and extend degree requiring, adjust and draw and extend degree appropriately in advance in advance;
I Divide the floodgate spring and fail, it is insufficient to divide the work of the floodgate, can change and divide the floodgate spring.
4,Not shutting the floodgate spring, energy storage or energy storage is uncomplete
a It is here to control the automatic air switch of the electrical machinery ” Divide ” The position, should close and shut;
b To control return circuit go on, check, have connect by mistake, broken circuit, keep in touch bad, etc, should carry on the treatment of pertinence;
c The contact of contactor keeps in touch badly, should adjust;
d The journey switch is cut off too early, should adjust, and check the switch contact of journey and burn out, burn changing;
e The energy storage part of surveyor, whether there is the card that hinders, cooperates with bad, spare part damage, if should get rid of.
5,The moisture content exceeds standard ‘ Ooze and enter the moisture content
a Change adsorbents;
b Smoke the vacuum, dry or change SF6 gas.
Five SF6 circuit breakers switch Attentive matters while overhauling
1,The high-pressure switch is not allowed to divide jointly in vacuum state, in case that damage kills the arc room spare part;
2,The organization should divide, shut the spring energy ralease of the floodgate while overhauling normally.
The activity is burnt to regard brown coal as a granulous material with double performance of adsorbent and catalyst that main raw materials are developed. The activity is burnt to have the characteristic of active charcoal, but costly, the mechanical intensity is low, shortcoming apt to crush that it overcame the active charcoal at the same time.
The main difference between mainly serial variety performance of broken charcoal of the nature of coal in the burnt and active charcoal of activity lie in, hit the hole actively and burntly developedly because of the structure, display on the index of performance – the iodine value is reduced to some extent, but methylene blue value, molasses value greatly increase, thus demonstrate in employing that can absorb the characteristics of the macromolecule, long chain organic matter, and because the intersection of resource and existence of advantage, production cost and production lead, have comparative advantage than the intersection of nature of coal and active charcoal, cause 50% of less than active charcoal of production cost, make the burnt sewage which becomes high cost performance of activity deal with and purify materials more deeply.
Filter the principle
Activity burnt to it filters to be suspend pollutant of state, go on the course held back in the water, space while filling by suspended substance holding back burntly to the activity. Strain the size of one layer of hole yardstick and hole rate, increase with increasing of the granularity of active burnt material. Namely the thicker the burnt granularity of activity is, the bigger the space that can hold suspended substance is. It is shown as and filtered ability to strengthen, receive corrupt ability to increase, cut corrupt quantity to increase. Meanwhile, activity burnt to strain layers of old hole, suspended substance can send to the burnt to strain layer activity deeply in the water, under the condition of protecting the thickness enough, suspended substance can be held back more, the lower floor strain the layer and produce the function of holding back better in making, the aircrew cuts corrupt quantity to increase.
Corched particle suspended substance depend on strength, CoulombCs of force and surface tension, China of Germany, Fan among the active burnt particle. The strength makes suspended substance moved and be absorbed. But at the same time, filter rivers to be in activity burnt to strain flow and rivers among the the intersection of activity and burnt particle in the layer cut strength have, make, hold back, absorb in active burnt the intersection of particle and suspended substance of surface peeling off Yes, and produce the additional flood peak at the same time, namely produced flood peak losses. The burnt granularity of the activity increases, space yardstick is strengthened, the space of space increases, pass large water passway yardstick, filter rivers resistance and subside, the flood peak can be delayed while losing increment, its result will reach particularly and stop the flood peak for lost filtration cycle and can be lengthened, water yield is increased.
Speaking from the strict theory, the burnt ability of holding back to suspended substance had of the activity comes from the burnt surface area offered of the activity. When the velocity of flow is low, the filtration ability of the aircrew comes from the burnt screening out function of activity mainly, and when velocity of flow quickly, filter the adsorption from surface of active burnt particle of ability, activity burnt particle not offered surface area large in the course of filtering, until suspended substance better adhesion have in the water.
According to the absorption course, active burnt member and difference of the effort between the pollutant molecules, can divide absorbing into two big classes; Physical absorption and chemistry are absorbed ‘ Also called active absorption . In absorption,it act as it is active burnt for member and among pollutant member is effort for Germany China strength Fan or static gravitation Called physical absorption hour; Called chemistry absorbing when the effort that between active burnt member and pollutant molecule is the chemical bond. The absorption intensity of physical absorption mainly relates to physical property with burnt activity, basically have nothing to do with the chemical property with burnt activity. Because Fan China of Germany has relatively weak strength, has a little effect on structure of the pollutant molecule, like cohesive force among the molecules, the intersection of physical absorption and for condense phenomenon analogy the strength. The chemical property of pollutant still maitains unchanged at the time of physical absorption.
Because the chemical bond is strong, exert a great influence on structure of the pollutant molecule, so absorb chemistry to regard the chemical reaction as, pollutant and the intersection of activity and result of chemical action among being burnt. Melting absorbs and generally includes the electron to shift to the sharing or electron, but not the simple one disturbs weak polarization a little, it is the irreversible chemical reaction process. The fundamental difference that physical absorption and chemistry absorb lies in producing the effort which absorbs the key.
The absorption course is that the pollutant molecule is absorbed to the course in the surface of solid, the free energy of the molecule is known and reduced, so, the absorption course is the exothermic course, it is hot that heat emitted is called the absorption on the solid surface here of this pollutant. Because the effort that physical absorption and chemistry absorb is different, they absorb heat, the intersection of absorption and speed, can absorb activation, the intersection of absorption and temperature, alternative, absorb layer, count and absorb spectrum, demonstrate certain difference.