Steaming chamber- Inside – the left Steaming chamber- Inside – right
Function: With ” vaporized state when the steam turbine main steam valve is started ” Chart contrast, so that heat the transition temperature of low-temperature fragility of the steam turbine rotor FATT appropriately before controlling from the main air control cable and switching over to regulate the steam valve to control For 121 ℃,whose name is general Israel and China press by jar last vapour mouth temperatures metal or in if you can’t press by jar, last vapour temperature for consulting, it judge metal on rotor temperature especially in if you can’t press by centre bore temperatures metal rotor, exceed low-temperature fragility transition temperature FATTs metal already .
Arrange the vapour area under high pressure- Underpart Arrange the vapour area under high pressure- Top China presses and pumps the vapour area- Underpart
China presses and pumps the vapour area- Top China presses and arranges the vapour area- Underpart China presses and arranges the vapour area- Top
Function: The steam turbine enters water and monitors the electric thermocouple, use in the stated temperature district in pairs, it was an exterior jar temperature that was examined. As the bottom temperature is lower than the top
41.7 ℃ alarm; The trouble shuts down when it is not obvious that the bottom temperature is lower than upper 55.6 ℃ to enter the water characteristic, in conformity with emergency shutdown when the characteristic is obvious to enter water.
1-2 # main the intersection of air control cable and metal temperature ‘ Main air control cable of Left deviation, right In the 1 – 2 # main the intersection of door and metal temperature ‘ Left deviation, right
Function: Can compare with entering the vapour temperature, fix and offset, and then confirm whether there are questions in the valve state, can compare the temperature difference of both sides, can observe whether Wen Sheng, warm lowering rate are normal.
The one-chip computer adds appropriate peripheral device and application program, the application system that forms becomes the minimum system. The article has carried on the discussion to the design of the peripheral circuit of one-chip computer of control system of frequency conversion.
Frequency conversion is controlled; Frequency conversion is designed systematically
Mainly have two kinds of frequency conversion technology in the technology of modern frequency conversion: Hand in – straight – hand in the technology of frequency conversion and hand in – hand in the technology of frequency conversion. Hand in – straight – hand in the technology of frequency conversion and offer the power of frequency conversion for the fact that hand in – straight – hands in frequency conversion and adjusts the speed systematically. Hand in – straight – the composition circuit which hands in frequency conversion commutates the circuit and goes against and turn into the part of the circuit two, commutate circuit alternating current commutate direct current frequently worker, against turn circuit into, go against, turn the intersection of frequency and adjustable alternating current into direct current again. Can be divided into voltage type and electric current type frequency conversion according to the properties of the power of frequency conversion.
This time is designed by handing in – hand in the circuit of frequency conversion not to pass middle direct-flow links, and vary the alternating current of the fixed frequency of the electric wire netting into the frequency conversion circuit of the alternating current of different frequency directly. This kind of frequency conversion circuit applies to high-power and exchanges the motor and adjusts the speed transmission extensively, that use is mainly that three phases are exported and handed in – hand in the circuit of frequency conversion actually. The characteristic of this kind of circuit: 1 Because vary directly, there is not the intermediate link, so is higher than the general frequency converter efficiency; 2 Have, it exchanges outputs to be to exchange, input the intersection of voltage and some parts of wave, wrap up and hold in place with a net forming directly in voltage with it, therefore its output frequency, than input to have lower frequency alternating current source, the output waveform is fine too; 3 Because of being limited by the frequency of the electric wire netting, usually the frequency of the output voltage is relatively low, it is about 1/3 of the frequency of the electric wire netting; 4 The power factor is relatively low, especially lower while running at a low speed, need appropriate compensation.
The three-phase frequency conversion circuit is relatively single-phase and complicated, its circuit wiring way mainly exchanges the bus bar to enter line way and outputting type and bind the way publically. Particularly, its main circuit pattern is as follows, 3 pulse waves and a type circuit, separate and support the bridge type circuit in 6 pulse unexpected turns of, 6 the intersection of pulse and wave separate, support bridge circuit, 12 the intersection of pulse and the intersection of wave and bridge circuit, 3 the intersection of pulse and wave, bring mid point triangular load circuit, 3 the intersection of pulse and annular circuit of wave.
Design selecting comparatively simple one – 3 pulse waves and a type circuit for use this time.
Third, synchronous circuit is designed
Synchronous function of circuit that in charge of, bear forward the intersection of positive pole and voltage order initially in corresponding brilliant floodgate Send out, can discern which the intersection of phase and synchronous the intersection of break and the intersection of pulse and Utpi and the intersection of α and corner of requirement of signal go on, delay time, control by one CPU, output the corresponding trigger pulse. Three-phase synchronous the intersection of voltage and signal through synchronous voltage transformer, connect, design to the circuit respectively strain wave, steady voltage, amplify with photoelectricity isolating,
In order to improve dependability and security of the control system, in exchanging design and operation of the power system, must all consider that there is possibility of breaking down and abnormal working condition. While exchanging the power system in three phases, the most common and most dangerous trouble is various short circuit, include the intersection of three phases and short out, short out, one phase the intersection of earthing and short out and electrical machinery and shorting out among the circle at the the intersection of voltage transformer and one phase winding each other, certainly have other formal protective measures too. The protection form is as follows, specifically The electric current type is protected, the voltage type is protected etc.. For simplification purpose, the short circuit while only adopting the electric current type to protect here is protected and crossed the electric current to protect, insert positive and negative to exchange the contactor in each the intersection of stator and input terminus of electrical machinery. In addition, in order to prevent the occurrence of unexpected situation, has introduced the urgent stop sign, the one-chip computer shuts off the contacting device KM2-KM8 through the middle relay when pushing and parking buttons promptly.
Sixth, feedback links to design
Have introduced the electric current to feedback in this system. The electric current feedbacks and adopts three phases to exchange the mutual inductor, is commutated the circuit by the three-phase bridge type and strains the circuit of wave, flowed, strained and involves P0.1 mouth that the circuit of amplitude limiting feedbacked the one-chip computer by the limit finally.
Fang RongHui, Deng XianMing, ShangGuan XuanFeng. Electrical machinery principle and pulling the foundation [M ]. The publishing house of China Mining University, 2001.
Yu FaShan, Zheng Zheng, Wang QingLing, Li Hui, Wang YuZhong. Automatic control system [M ]. The publishing house of China Mining University, 2005.
Yu FaShan. One-chip computer principle and application technology [M ]. The publishing house of China Mining University, 2003.
Wang RenXiang. Daily low-voltage electric apparatus principle and control technology [M ]. The publishing house of the mechanical industry, 2002.
Wang ZhaoAn, yellow and beautiful. Electric and electronic technology [M ]. The publishing house of the mechanical industry, 2005.
Keyword: The electricity constructs Project management
Nowadays the electric market competition is fierce, every electric construction enterprise devotes more efforts to reforming, stress management inside, catch the market outside, strengthen the competitive power of enterprises. But project management, safety management
The safety work is the lives of enterprises, it is family’s happy assurance, and safe management too, not sticking to the slogans, having meetings on the issue to can be solved, the key lies in implementing. At the beginning of project construction, primary work is to establish the safety management organization, divide the work clearly, responsibility reaches people, and according to project under construction characteristics undertaken, make the safe management system, and fix up and implement. The concrete measure is:
Carry on safety education to all constructors who enters the project department, enter a one piece of education, no matter old worker, or new employee, need, go on, examine safely, can release project portion this after being qualified security and health control work license enter the building site to construct. In this way, entering the worker of the building site through studying and educating making has a new understanding, new understanding on construction site, in this way, will improve safe consciousness constantly. Foreign association team and casual labour enter event department needing to examine the strict qualification and physical examination, the system which carries on safe regulation and rules studies, and carry on essential construction skills training, improve self-protection consciousness. Require every speciality to direct against the characteristic of this project and professional characteristic, work out a bit more dangerously, dangerous source, dangerous one and safeguard procedures, as the main content of going on telling somebody what one’s real intentions are to the worker safely, and obviously annotate the homework, warn constructors.
Offer the full-time security official the abundant power of rewards and punishments, strengthen the routine safety to monitor, notify to the hidden danger found, implement responsibility in time. For strengthen the intersection of teams and groups and part-time responsibility of security official, the safety inspection and routine are checked to every month when organizes of project portion, question and accident potential found, should not merely criticize, notify the person liable, investigate responsibility too for the part-time security official, circulate a notice of criticism, in order to strengthen the daily control efforts of the security officials of teams and groups. And increase the input in safety measure and do a good job of safe protection, offer the good security construction environment to constructors.
Carry out the work of telling somebody what one’s real intentions are of early class meeting of every specialized team, the work of telling somebody what one’s real intentions are of the great construction scheme strictly, tell somebody what one’s real intentions are people and people told somebody what one’s real intentions are must sign. Insist on the weekly security studying activities, let workers study safe regulation and system in depth, study the accident case, make each worker keep the security firmly in mind, guarantee the security all the time, make construction organize going on smoothly. Utilize the incident to notify, the incident to record the looks, lecture safely, the incident case carries on education.
Second, strengthen quality control, strengthen the weight of the market competition
At present, quality concerns the existence of enterprises. The transformer substation is a huge production system, its whole quality is expected very much, very tight. One telescopic seepage, one screw become flexible, one control, go back route become flexible, can result in, generate heat, lose electrical power, overhaul, cause enormous economic losses and social influence. So every investor, will all select a style for use in the hard, high, operation team consummate, that can create the up-market project of quality craft of technology, in order to guarantee operation safety of transformer substationing and economic benefits. This puts forward higher, tighter requirement on management of the construction enterprise, enable the construction enterprise work hard, dig potentiality, especially event department management in management, play an essential role on the construction quality. So, the electric project management of construction enterprise should do a good job of the following aspects.
Project portion go into operation at the beginning of, take, establish ” the up-market project ” The goal, educate every worker’s quality and enterprise, the relation between quality and one, understand enterprises dominate the market according to quality, lose quality, just lose the market, lose the primary condition that enterprises survive. Make the feasible quality management system, and organize every speciality and work out to direct against the construction craft of this project in event department, make construction melt, be standardized, standardize neatly, and require every construction speciality construction quality common fault and corresponding measure of working out this speciality, control in advance.
Organize every specialized design drawing, the joint hearing work of producer’s drawing of the apparatus, will design the defect to dispel before construction. Make the strict material and examine the system, hold and construct the first barrier, avoid doing over again and quality accident that is caused by material quality problem.
Work out the construction scheme with strong operability, do the work of telling somebody what one’s real intentions are well, and require constructors to know technical requirement and quality criteria, do the original record of constructing well. Want, organize every speciality carry on the intersection of quality and knowledge, construct skills training, improve constructors’ construction ability. Carry out the units at various levels and confirm system and process and hand over the system strictly.
Make the system of rewards and penalties of quality, should merit the reward on the speciality that the construction craft is high quality in event department, the speciality of the quality problem takes to go on the exposure, circulate a notice of criticism and economy is punished to store in.
Want responsibility reach people to key process, for example: , the framework is hoisted, the bus bar is pressed and connected, the bolt is fastened, mainly change and install etc., enable each link under quality control.
Quality control is all-round, the whole course, whole management, control before doing the good thing. Should implement the implementation of every quality hypervisor as event department, like this, can unquestionably create ” The up-market project ” .
Third, strengthen management, reduce and construct the cost
At present, electric market competition fierce, force electric construction enterprise while catching the market, a tight and one’s own one ” The pocket ” . On the basis of guaranteeing project security, quality, stress internal management, reduce the cost of project to consume. Save the fund, strengthen enterprise’s benefit, it is a purpose of every construction enterprise. Cost it manages to be centre of economic management, project portion profit center of enterprise, so the project management must take every measure, lower costs, stop up the cost and run off the loophole. For this reason, the economic management of project department should take the following measures:
From setting up the cost management system composed of project manager, every specialized team captain organizationally, implement responsibility, confirm the cost goal. Every specialized construction team is in the first place of the cost management of the project engineering. Should assign, reduce, construct cost index to every specialized team, each project finished examining, make into originally analyzing, reward the surplus, overspends punishment, impel every specialized construction team in personnel’s putting one’s back into, material receiving, mechanical use, have to calculate carefully and budget strictly, achieve the goal of lowering costs.
Project portion organize, work, implement person who design with the intersection of construction and actual intensity of conforming of quantity conscientiously by every professional the intersection of drawing and joint hearing, put forward the supplementing amount to designing institute in time. It is a whole behavior that the cost is managed, educate every worker’s economy consciousness, train idea that is one’s own money earned by hard toil of every fen of the waste.
Fourth, do a good job of management, the leader is the key
Every control measures are better, lead consciousness to be uncomplete, lead the thought to be non- unified, in fact a piece of blank sheet of paper, it is an empty verbiage, so administrator must accomplish the project:
Strengthen one’s own quality to train, is studying the professional engineering level constantly, strengthen the theory study of management.
Should divide the work clearly in event department, responsibility reaches people, should make public, enable every speciality, every department personnel’s mutual understanding. So can already strengthen everybody’s responsibility, has enabled every speciality, every department personnel, clear what is done, it is responsible for, stop the contradiction between project portion members avoiding leader or nobody multicipital, it is united to strengthen, raise speed. The members of group of project department should hold the exchanging meeting of the thought regularly, direct against construction site and worker’s thought trends, exchange in time, deal with in time. Learn from other’s strong points to offset one’s weaknesses each other, build one united atmosphere, promote understanding, make sure, unite, assist, friendliness help each other. Make factory’s affair public, confer collectively in distributing the bonus, commenting first, rewarding etc.. The important issue to worker’s sensitiveness adopts the democratic questionnaire, carry on the work on the basis of soliciting worker’s opinion extensively, not making the conference hall where one has all the say, a person determines the course of events.
The leader of project department should play the model in the work, set an example for the rank-and-file, especially in case of urgent, difficult, dangerous construction, the cadre must show up. The leader of project department should join every security quality thorough examination of organization actively, want, participate in cost analysis to know every month, find out about project portion every job, take, accomplish, know what’s what, it is easy to command and make policy.
Fifth, human-oriented, create the good corporate culture
We have advanced management, have advanced construction machinery. But the realization of the comprehensive management objectives of a project, was implemented specifically by every worker, so must strengthen the worker’s outlook on life, world outlook education. Because the ideological level can not be reached, the capable person does not do one’s best, the person without ability acts blindly, enterprise have innovation, have life, with how long can collapse enterprise.
The corporate culture is the soul of enterprise’s development, and the values are cores of the corporate culture. Want people first, regard worker as the subject, build a kind of respect person, believe in the person, care about people, understand the culture atmosphere of people inside enterprises, care about the worker in life, understand the worker theoretically. Encourage on the material, stimulate behavioral initiative and enthusiasm, the persons who highlight achievement are rewarded, make it deserve it, and make other people have objectives of the struggle. Encourage on spirit too at the same time, take and praise the way publicly, regard each worker as the outstanding staff, make each worker full of self-confidence to oneself. Worker’s trust to lead of strengthening meanwhile, strengthen the cohesive force in enterprise, stimulate working enthusiasm and spirit of creation, make enterprises full of vigor.
In sum, the management of an enterprise is only innovating constantly, entrust the new vigor of business administration, could promote enterprises to develop forward constantly. The electric project management of construction enterprise, should be according to one’s own construction characteristic, personnel’s structure, adhering to the safe, high-quality, high-efficient principle, make office procedure and rigorous and effective feasible rules and regulations which accord with this project, and implement conscientiously, fully arouse and give play to subjective initiative and creativity of people at the same time, promote the development of electric construction enterprise, create the brands of enterprises, make enterprises establish in an unassailable position.
Hefei two power plant make powder whom system adopt whether pair enter pair produce steel ball, rub and press the blowing system direct, in putting actual operation after commerce run into, to open, park burning and vapour in boiler warm perturbation very much loud machine for rubbing coal, especially 3 machines for rubbing coal of # are opened while stopping when F layer of the lowest floor, E layer powder are put into, the ultra warm phenomenon extremely incident of the boiler, it is very big too that the vapour is pressed and fluctuated. This text controls the angle from burning, vapour warm characteristic and operation of regulating the system, canvass the # 3 and make the main technical parameter of powder system
1Machine for rubbing coal
Type: SVEDALA 12″6″”* 18″0″” 3.81* 5.96m
Pattern: Pair enters pair and goes out of the steel ball to rub
The thin degree of coal powder: 200 mesh 75% passes ≈ R90 =18.5%
Rotational speed: 17.2rpm
Outlet temperature: 70 ℃
Internal diameter: 3810mm
Exert oneself: 6437 T/Hmm
The useful load of the steel ball: 68885 T
The size of the steel ball: Ф 50 / Ф 40 / Ф 25mm
The proportion of various steel balls: 27.7/31.3/9.9 T
Use the coal: Lake smoke coal Wy of colored home of Huainan =7.52% Ay =31.61% Vr =30.29% Cy =48.47% Qyd =20171kJ/kg
Quantity: 3 / stove
Rotational speed: 1000rpm
The output power of the gearbox: 221RPM
The gearbox reduces the speed ratio: 4.437:1
Lubricating oil system
Flow: 0.45G/MIN high pressure
15G/MIN low pressure
Electric heater power: 30KW
The electric apparatus voltage: 380V
Carry the oil pump electrical machinery type of the axle: 112M-6
Carry the power of electrical machinery of oil pump of the axle: 2.2KW
Low-voltage oil pump electrical machinery type: 112M-6
The power of electrical machinery of the low-voltage oil pump: 2.2KW
Sealed air blower
Air discharge: 7280M3 /H
Air pressure: 1.078KPA
The electrical machinery power: 15KW
Rotational speed: 2920RPM
Quantity: 1 set /rub
Type: GM –BSC21-26
Pattern: Able to bear pressing the electron to weigh the measuring type
Most greatly exert oneself: 100T/H
Exert oneself in work: 5-75T/H
Quantity: 2 set /rub
Manufacturer: Electric apparatus company of hydropower station of Shenyang China
Thick powder separator
Pattern: The shutter is centrifugated to separate
Separator diameter: 2743MM
Quantity: 2 set /rub
2 Parameter of mainly running
Enter and rub maximum air volume: 123450KG/H
Rub the most greatly and quietly and press losses: 5.6KPA
Rub wind pressure largest once: 4.2KPA
It allows the supreme wind warmly to import: 400 ℃
Rub minimum load: 30T/H form side runs
30T/H dual sides run
The sealed air total amount: 5100KG/H
Rub the unit consumption of coal: 14.97KWH/T coal design the coal
2.Make powder system main procedure and operation principle
Hefei two power plant 350MW aircrews and each boiler dispose 3 sets of pair which SVEDALA Companies produces and enter pair and go out of the machine for rubbing coal of steel ball, pressing the blowing type directly and making the powder system. Make powder system including every one and enter pair and go out of the machine for rubbing coal of steel ball, 2 coal feeders each set, 2 thick powder separators, one is sealed for the air blower, share once wind system, 8 coal powder burning devices every layer is 4 ,And related air door shelf board, coal powder pipeline,etc..
The raw coal in two hyperbola type original coal scuttles passes the electronic door of the entry, enter the gravimetric coal feeder of two electrons, and then send through the electronic floodgate board door. Taken from cold in charge of by first wind in machine for rubbing coal under adjustment by hot one the intersection of wind and mothering, mix with raw coal that two coal feeders export separately, and finish its dry function in whereabouts of the raw coal. Make the raw coal fall down into while rubing the barrel to grind in accordance with its inertia in coal side slope of the both ends hopper of machine for rubbing coal. It has fetched it since cold, a hot once wind mother is in charge of through adjustment outside, must make the wind warm have minimum flow to limit As the bypass wind of the machine for rubbing coal, guarantee a certain amount of once wind passes thick powder separator and coal powder pipeline in case of low load, control in starting and stoppage in transit course through DCS procedure the burning device is stripped to the separator, coal powder pipeline while quiting work. Each coal pink a pipeline ‘ After the separator exports the guard Have fetched and stripped the coal powder pipeline since it is in the stoppage in transit of machine for rubbing coal that wind mother is in charge of a cold once as stripping the wind or before starting through the electronic floodgate board door. such as Fig.
Under function of the wind, the coal powder after the machine for rubbing coal is ground is sent to the thick powder separator by turning back to the door to carry on one by the powder side pipeline of the both ends hopper of machine for rubbing coal, in enter the intersection of coal and powder, export before the pipeline carrying on separation two times. The qualified coal powder isolates the board door through the separator exit, powder mixture of wind is sent into the burning device and burns in the burner hearth by the wind pipeline of once, thicker coal powder falls into the cone inside the separator, send certain amounts of coal powder back to the machine for rubbing coal and grind again through the angry device of the lock.
The steel ball equipped with different size in the barrel of the machine for rubbing coal, when the barrel is rotated, the raw coal is turned into coal powder through the striking and grinding of the steel ball, the coal powder is brought into the separator to separate through the once wind. It only determines size of the air volume of passing the machine for rubbing coal that the machine for rubbing coal exerts oneself. The control of the coal feeder is according to presuming and adjusting the coal feeder rotational speed through air volume of the machine for rubbing coal.
Two, the first grade that 3 machines for rubbing coal of # open when stopping reduces warm water regulating characteristics analysis
1. First grade reduces the principle that the warm water regulates
It is that every bunch regulates the system, the inner return circuit, in order to reduce the regulation of the warm water yield that first grade reduces the warm water and regulates, consider in the inner return circuit the outlet temperature of reducing the warm device can’t be lower than the saturation temperature, increase reduce warm the intersection of device and the intersection of saturation and the intersection of temperature and minimum of outlet temperature, control ‘ Consider simplifying here and has not stamped ,Other the intersection of return circuit and control parameter, for separate, reject, export vapour warm HAH31CT001, person who presume mainly vaporized function of flow, it is 440 ℃ to load the operating mode at present, spend second to make a reduction of the warm device and import the temperature HAH42CT002 as the revision signals of signal and presuming value of feedforward, can lower the setting for value of temperature automatically at 540 ℃ while being loud in 42CT002, can reduce 18 ℃ to the greatest extent.
2 . # 3 machines for rubbing coal open and stop stage to reduce warm water regulating characteristics analysis
1# 3 machine for rubbing coal open, it parks to be apt to cause second reduce warm device import temperature to be ultra and warm in the course, in open park test, through open, park, compare and analyse all stages with # 3 machine for rubbing coal to every temperature some the intersection of parameter and change
A, machine for rubbing coal dual end reduce warm device, import the temperature, exert a tremendous influence to second cut single-end, in the stoppage in transit, separate and reject outlet temperature has not risen but second makes a reduction of the warm device and imports the rising still fast in temperature, the regulating action mainly depends on the feedforward signal of 42CT002 at this moment, after separating the temperature that is rejected to drop fast, reducing the warm device import temperature begin to drop several minutes later, feedforward function begins to be subdued but reduced more through the temperature after the screen this time at this moment, reducing the warm water regulating valve begins to close.
The powder of B, machine for rubbing coal is in charge of separating and rejecting the temperature and reduced the warm device import temperature and successively began to rise while stripping, mainly follow feedforward function and regulate the temperature subsequently, shake the course slowly as one, but second reduce warm device import temperature to be basically at 530 ℃ about, separate, reject temperature to be basically at 440 ℃ about, pitch opening is generally about 40% at this moment, reduce the warm water flow generally in 25T/H, the temperature does not change much.
The stopping wasting and stripping stage of C, machine for rubbing coal, the powder content is reduced in the wind, the main vapour pressure begins to drop, reduce warm the intersection of water and the intersection of valve and turning on large lasting at this moment, but reduce warm water yield, increase little, it is very much difficult for temperature not to control, in the machine for rubbing coal for 6 minutes after stripping and finishing stoppage in transit, the main vapour pressure is that one drops course, the fast increase fuel of another two machines for rubbing coal is extremely apt to cause the vapour to keep and exceed and adjust, vapour machine pitch imprison little and the last because the main vapour flow is reduced and the amount of fuel increases, it is extremely warm to lead to the fact second to make a reduction of the warm device and import, the main ultra tender feeling condition takes place at this stage promptly, second reduce warm device, it imports temperatures to be too most high in ultra warm value, it crosses the intersection of heat exchanger and outlet temperature to be too ultra to call the police to increase and run and punish the difficulty while being warm sometimes.
D, machine for rubbing coal start the intersection of stage and form produce most loud perturbation while running, at this moment if the temperature has been already relatively high, it is limited to reduce the increasing degree of the warm water yield, generally need intervening manually.
2Regulating characteristics are analyzed:
A, until whom vaporized flow direction assign separate, reject outlet temperature and second reduce warm device, import the intersection of response and variation tendency of temperature, have about inertia delay 3 minute, that is to say, reject temperature, begin second reduce, import, reach, begin to drop by culmination by temperature by warm device drop 3 minute, in separate, regulate parameter to be whole to want, consider inertia this delay function, prevent from while separating and rejecting the temperature to drop closing pitching and causing second reduce warm device import temperature to be ultra and warm promptly fully definitely. First grade reduces the warm device outlet temperature and does not basically change much, will seldom be lower than the saturation temperature to limit the requirement.
B, reducing warm water regulating valve opening to reach flow of about 28T/H about 50%, it is insufficient to regulate allowance, so regulate initial stage at the temperature and strengthen water spray quantity to control the temperature in lower value just, second makes a reduction of the warm device and imports the temperature and is greater than ℃540, it is very apt to be ultra and warm to switch over and operate the machine for rubbing coal again
Generally speaking, mainly inertia is great that first grade reduces the vapour of the warm device warmly and regulates and displays the characteristic, regulate, respond to slow, reduce warm water reduce into warm water as regulating measure and vapour pigeonhole pigeonhole difference to be low to influence, it is relatively low to reduce warm water allowance, a section of vaporized flow of low load is low, are burnt operating mode, main vapour pressure and pitch and change the perturbation of great impact.
3. Regulate the parameter and optimize consideration on
The whole first grade of stage reduces warm device temperature control and can be met and run to regulate the requirement at present, but control worse under the specific operating mode, so two main regulator parameters can maitain unchanged, and should be strengthened to the regulation of the ultra warm point 42CT002.
1 The parameter inertia of the temperature relatively delays about 3 minutes, in considering the time of delay, after the temperature after separating the screen begins to drop, the other return circuit regulator is exported and reduced too, and second reduce warm the intersection of device and the intersection of import and temperature rise continuously and temperature little in absolute variable quantity, want, try hard, keep opening of regulating valve at this moment, and feedforward of regulator the intersection of temperature and feedforward and amount of fuel the intersection of perturbation and the intersection of feedforward and signal characteristic ahead of characteristic of total mark under differential in the parameter, so should strengthen the function of total mark and continue keeping the opening of the regulating valve at this stage.
2 2CT002 temperature limit is at 540 ℃, and the calling the police value of temperature is at 546 ℃, it changes 6 ℃ to be only equivalent to 1% to 600 ℃ of warm range of vapour ‘ Can reduce the definite value of the temperature to enlarge in actual operation to 3% to 422 ℃ ,But temperature rise limiter this often already relatively difficult to control temperature work, so can consider reducing 540 ℃ to about 530 ℃, it lower 18 ℃ though from in temperature limit regulator if you can’t reduce second by devices warm, last temperature change and responding getting earliers all right This personnel used to, reduce first grade warm the intersection of device and temperature person who presume have, it arrives 430 ℃ reason to be the same in front of not opening, parking machining for rubbing coal with run ,Make the vapour warm and maintain at lower value all the time, it is insufficient and ultra and warm to prevent regulating allowance after the temperature call the police.
3In 3 machines for rubbing coal of stoppage in transit of # are stripped in 6 minutes of stage, strip the longer time at the same time, the powder content is the lower in the wind, 1 #, air volume that # 2 machine for rubbing coal increase powder content more, pigeonhole, reduce, add air volume stage by two machines for rubbing coal in vapour, 3 air volume of rubing stoppage in transit of # rises to other two more will cause and exceed adjusting while rubing. After the machine for rubbing coal starts stage the clutch is closed, the intersection of fuel and air volume of machine for rubbing coal total mark links were dealt with through first 45 seconds, so can reduce stage low in powder the intersection of calculation and influence on burning operating mode enter the total amount of fuel of the boiler, their in the wind in run just by machine for rubbing coal. At present, our stoppage in transit machine for rubbing coal uses ” BALANCE ” The way, this, way the next, will rise to other machines for rubbing coal when rubing air volume reduced, can consider, park rub, increasing total marking, punishing to air volume that stoppage in transit rub, reduce by two value-added of air volume of running and rubings.
Three, opening stopping testing and controlling result analysis of 3 machines for rubbing coal of #
1,A stove # and 3 machines for rubbing coal of stoppage in transit of # are tested:
The impact on boiler burning and the warm one of vapour in time and stoppage in transit course needed comes down by the stoppage in transit of peak speed to observe 3 machines for rubbing coal of #.
2Stoppage in transit is operated:
A, # machine for rubbing coal No. 1 operated before stoppage in transit: # reject 1 stove and last heat exchanger and last temperature control while cutting apart from ” The peripheral hardware ” Cut into ” have inside ” ,The presuming value of temperature is lowered to 430 ℃ by 440 ℃, the swing angle of burning device drops to 60% from 45%. It is controlled and all thrown that board control and vapour of the auxiliary windscreen are warm ” Automatic ” ,3 machines for rubbing coal of amount of coal given of # are controlled and thrown ” The peripheral hardware ” ,Do not have and setover, control more than the curve according to the amended wind / coal.
B, # a stove # and 3 machines for rubbing coal of stoppage in transit operated: Have in at 0 past 14, personnel control and cut 3 machines for rubbing coal and air volume of # into to run ” ” ,Presume air volume is 10.1 m3/s. When reaching 10.1 m3/s in actual value of air volume, presume manually 3 machines for rubbing coal and air volume of # are started ” pair appear ” for 9.4 m3/s Switch is ” Appear only ” Operation. Wait to switch over the work to finish, when air volume of reality reaches about 9.4 m3/s, are not in charge of stripping to the powder of A layer, have air volume to 6.0m3/s directly, when air volume of reality reaches about 6.0 m3/s, start the single-end stoppage in transit function group of 3 machines for rubbing coal of # immediately. At 15 past 14, 3 machines for rubbing coal of automatic stoppage in transit after the coal feeder stop for 6 minutes completely of #. The time of whole stoppage in transit is time consuming about 15 minutes. 3 machines for rubbing coal of # ” Pair appears ” Cut into ” appear only ” When, 1 of #, 2 machines for rubbing coal and air volume of # rise to about 12.7m3/s from 11.5m3/s, 1 of #, 2 machines for rubbing coal and air volume of # rise to when the stoppage in transit of single-end finished, and steady about 17.5m3/s. # 3 machine for rubbing coal stoppage in transit over, in charge of, go on, strip to the intersection of B layer and powder when it is steady for boiler to burn.
3The intersection of stoppage in transit and course is to the intersection of boiler and the intersection of vapour and warm, influence that vapour pigeonhole:
In the course of stoppage in transit, the warm range of variation of main vapour: A0HAH51/52CT900 starts to change from 539 ℃/ 539 ℃, it is 533.49 ℃/ 527.93 ℃ to be minimum, it is at most 543.75 ℃/ 540.82 ℃. The and then hot vapour is warm to examine the point A0HAJ11/12CT001/003 temperature and is begun the change by 522.65 ℃, 525.58 ℃/ 508.30 ℃, 511.81 ℃, minimum for 508.88 ℃, 510.64 ℃/ 492.18 ℃, 494.82 ℃” pair appears ” Cut into ” appear only ” ,It is at most 532.32 ℃, 535.84 ℃/ 508.59 ℃, 512.69 ℃after the stoppage in transit of single-end . The boiler second makes a reduction of the warm device and imports the temperature A0HAH41/42CT002 range of variation: Begin to change from 528.22 ℃/ 531 ℃, it is 518 ℃/ 514 ℃ to be minimum, it is at most 535.6 ℃/ 545.5 ℃. The vapour is pressed and varied to 13.818MPa ” pair appears ” by 13.467MPa Cut into ” appear only ” ,Then steady about 13.467MPa. In the course of whole stoppage in transit, aircrew’s load has not changed, besides stopping transport to 3 machines for rubbing coal of #, personnel have not carried on any burning, vapour it is adjusted that warm to run.
2,It is tested that machine for rubbing coal No. 1 of # is started:
Observe # 3 machines for rubbing coal of time needed and warm influence to burning of boiler and vapour of start-up course while beginning to start to normal running.
2Start and operate:
Had in before A, # machine for rubbing coal No. 1 was started, a stove of # cut apart and rejected the heat exchanger to export temperature control and still maintain at ” ” ,It is 430 ℃ that the temperature is presumed, the swing angle of burning device maintains at 60%. It is controlled and all thrown that board control and vapour of the auxiliary windscreen are warm ” Automatic ” .
B, start operate: At 06 past 15, personnel start 3 machines for rubbing coal of single-end of # to start the function group to run, after the clutch of the machine for rubbing coal clenches the teeth, 1 of #, 2 machines for rubbing coal and air volume of # have dropped to 13.1m3/s from 17.6m3/s. When the temperature after rubing reaches 65 ℃, two coal feeders give coal normally, the coal throws ” peripheral hardware ” to give the machine for rubbing coal ,Then have air volume to 10.0 m3/s, begin to be in charge of stripping to the powder of A layer. At 26 past 15, in order to set up coal one in the machine for rubbing coal as soon as possible, demanded to run personnel set up giving coal and setovering time can also be ahead of time of 3T/H . Start at 28 past 15 ” Cut double ” Operation Group starts the function ,In the procedure, 1 #, the intersection of # and 2 machine for rubbing coal one air volume rise to 14.3 m3/s from 13.1m3/s, treat # 3 machine for rubbing coal ” cut pair ” After finishing, burning steadily, air volume of three machines for rubbing coal is steady about 12.2 m3/s. The whole start-up course probably costs 26 minutes.
3The influence that the vapour warm to the boiler vapour of start-up course presses:
In the start-up course, the warm range of variation of main vapour: A0HAH51/52CT900 begins to change from 539 ℃/ 539 ℃, it is 530 ℃/ 530 ℃ to be minimum, it is at most 540 ℃/ 539 ℃. The and then hot vapour is warm to examine the point A0HAJ11/12CT001/003 temperature and is begun the change by 527.93 ℃, 530.85 ℃/ 506.83 ℃, 509.76 ℃, it is cut that after 3 machines for rubbing coal of clutches of # clench the teeth, the temperature is lowered pair to 512.81 ℃, 514.45 ℃/ 502.73 ℃, 505.07 ℃, ” ” In the course, the temperature becomes 536.71 ℃, 539.35 ℃/ 512.69 ℃, 516.50 ℃, after 3 machines for rubbing coal of # start to finish, the temperature stabilizes, 519 ℃/ 495 ℃, 498 ℃ at 517 ℃. The boiler second makes a reduction of the warm device and imports the temperature A0HAH41/42CT002 range of variation: Begin the change from 528.22 ℃/ 523.24 ℃, change 3 of # machine for rubbing coal to 532.32 ℃/ change when not ventilating to 518.26 ℃ when not clenching the teeth 506 ℃, # 3 machines for rubbing coal of clutches / 516.50 ℃, 3 machines for rubbing coal of # ” Cut double ” Vary to ℃535.54 / 529.10 ℃ hour. The vapour is pressed and varied to 13.057MPa ” appear only ” by 13.467MPa Cut into ” pair appears ” ,Then steady about 13.467MPa. Aircrew’s load has not changed, except start to 3 machines for rubbing coal of # in the start-up course, personnel have not carried on any burning, vapour it is adjusted that warm to run.
Aircrew, when the normal running, high low the intersection of load and operating mode lay # 3 machine for rubbing coal corresponding the intersection of coal and the intersection of powder and person who burn fire examine straight very much steady, prove the coal powder air current catches fire in sound conditionly. In the course of opening and stopping the test, personnel have not intervened the burning of boiler and warm adjustment of vapour to run, the main fact of the boiler, hotter vapour warm change range, amplitude are in the range of allowing. And opened and stopped 3 machines for rubbing coal of # before, though ran personnel took a series of measured, for example set up 3 machines for rubbing coal of # for coal quantity first – biasing above 10T/H; Will put under the swing angle of burning device in advance; # reject 1 stove and last heat exchanger while cutting apart last temperature control from ” The peripheral hardware ” Cut into ” have inside ” ,The presuming value of temperature is lowered to 430 ℃ by 440 ℃; Set up 2 machines for rubbing coal and air volume of # to shoulder and setover, reduces 2 machines for rubbing coal of # and exerts oneself; Make the serious offense manually, the heat exchanger reduces the warm water and adjusts the valve again; Adjust and burn off the windscreen board opening manually; The big vapour machine pitch is held manually; Turn off and open and stop the circle windscreen board of corresponding week of machine for rubbing coal small manually; Reduce the boiler to give air volume manually; In ” pair appears ” , ” Shan appears ” Switch over each other, and machine for rubbing coal throw oil in order to control vapour to be warm, etc start or stop transport just just, the intersection of temperature adjustment and measure that can take adopt, take place frequently still often vapour pigeonhole, cause the intersection of aircrew and grades of control trip automatically over while being poor with person who presume, the aircrew load is changed greatly, it is warm and ultra and warm, etc that the boiler second makes a reduction of the warm device and imports temperature and hotter vapour. , carry on much burning, vapour warm to change ‘ As stated above ,But vapour warm the intersection of change and range and vapour pigeonhole change the range, exceed this test value, when machine for rubbing coal No. 1 of # was started, the boiler second made a reduction of the warm device and imported the temperature A0HAH42CT002 to reach 557.65 ℃ especially in the twinkling of an eye. And the attenbant on duty should run the experience is very abundant. Thus, open park # 3 machine for rubbing coal, for prevent vapour from to be warm and extremely warm, light experience of personnel enough according to run, must set about from basic reason, change the intersection of machine for rubbing coal and wind / coal than curve, make the intersection of powder and systematic control system,etc. optimally.
Four, # 3 machines for rubbing coal open guaranteeing the vapour presses the warm and stable operation measure of vapour while stopping
3 rub, open park, taking place often to # vapour warm vapour pigeonhole and control the phenomenon of the jitter, besides optimizing function group of machine for rubbing coal and vapour warmly and controlling logic, in daily operation operation, should grasp the lead that the parameter regulates according to the regulating characteristics of the system, according to the experience, can go on according to the following measures:
1,Put the swing angle of burner to 50~60%, and then reject and import the warm presuming value of vapouring is presumed manually it is 430 ℃ by 440 ℃, heat exchanger export vapour to be warm to it presumes to be 535 ℃ manually by 546 ℃ and then, park #, 3 rub after the vapour is warm to reach the presuming value and stability.
The intersection of stoppage in transit and # 3 generally in from 200mw to 240mw, in 11.5~14m3/s generally three air volume rubed at this moment load rub, if go on at this moment ” Pair appears ” Cut ” appear only ” Operate, because # 3 rub operating mode, change, bring powder quantity to heighten vapour pigeonhole and load rise very fast, this will cause a: Aircrew grades of control will reduce 1 #, 2 rub, exert oneself automatically, 1 – 2 # rub one air volume quickly to 10.2m3/s lower limit And not reduce the surplus, b:Because load rises at the same time, the controller aircrew throws BFC control method of the vapour machine Will turn off the ditty door in order to keep load steady, this will cause the vapour even more the warm, vapour will be pressed and risen too fast. Park #, 3 should rub, presume for buckle more #, 3 rub, give coal quantity behind the 10.5m3/s slowly manually by one air volume 3 # rub, for keep vapour pigeonhole and load steady, stove controller will rub air volume, increase 1 – 2 # slowly, 1, 2 rubs air volume to add after 18~19m3/s and run for 10~15 minutes steadily, carry on the # 3 more ” pair appear ” rubed in the # Cut into ” appear only ” Operation,in this way can reduce by # being that 3 rub, material location reduce # 3 ones that rub carry powder quantity guarantee to last ” pair produce ” for 3 times at # Cut into ” appear only ” Vapour warm and vapour pigeonhole rise, making 1 – 2 # rub have enough the intersection of downward modulation and space, 1 – 2 # rub a corresponding one four powder in charge of decline of them can reduce obviously at being at the same time
2,Carrying on 3 ones that rub of # ” Pair appears ” Cut into ” appear only ” When, can’t rub person who presume, change 6m3/s into manually 3 # from 9.5m3/s immediately, because 3 # rub, take powder cause vapour to be warm at this moment and vapour pigeonhole rise, rub person who presume, change 3 # small, stove basic controller can rub, strengthen in order to keep stove exert oneself equilibrium, steady by one air volume 1 – 2 # automatically, because 1 – 2 # rub, happen powder in charge of for the intersection of upper strata and powder, and upper strata powder in charge of, exert oneself, increase, will make vapour to be warm to rise, this will make the vapour warm and difficult and control even more, so should be in ” pair appear ” Cut into ” appear only ” And then should access warm vapour and vapour pigeonhole curve observe carefully, until vapour warm and at vapour pigeonhole stabilize or have downward trends, can rub person who presume, change 6 m3/s into 3 #, in order to reduce #, 3 rub, lead powder quantity. And it is warm at vapour since it must want, vapour be lowered to to regulation to be pigeonholed,can’t can have 3 of # rubed presuming value changed into 9m3/s rubed not driving end A layer powder not to be in charge of strippinged 3 of #
3,It is at # rub 3 by A layer powder in charge of finishing stripping,there are warm and pigeonholing behind regulation, be lasted air volume to presume 3 of # whether start # more and rub last function group for 3 times to 6m3/s at vapour on vapour, at the same time should pay attention to, check 1 – 2 # rub, have, reduce space by one air volume, because two coal feeders that 3 # rub all park in initial stage of carrying on the operation, person who ventilate uprush, bring powder quantity to increase, vapour warm and vapour pigeonhole will rise, quickly, 3 rub, buckle coal run # 3 the intersection of abradant and location high through previous #, it will not be too big to lead powder quantity. Should pay attention to, check, rub, will certainly reduce rich quantity by air volume by 1 – 2 #, waste, strip later stage in 3 # ‘ 12 minutes Until # 3 rub carry the intersection of powder and quantity, reduce, a large amount of cold wind enter burner hearth, vapour pigeonhole and load drop quickly, will increase 1, 2 ones that rubed of # and exert oneself in order to keep one grade of controllers of stability aircrew of aircrew’s vapour pressing, load, 1 #, 2 one air volume that rub even will rise to 22.5m3/s upper limit quickly ,Because a large amount of cold wind enter burner hearth, raise the intersection of flame and centre, exhaust gas volumn can heighten all these warm to rise, accelerate vapour from the intersection of stove and bottom at the same time, so this ago should observe by vapour conscientiously warm and if you can’t press, changing,is it warm for vapour, vapour be proved whether there aren’t # when not becoming slow to be lasted ascendant trended, should increase the # by 1, 2 and rub to coal quantity immediately, preventing the # 1, 2 wastes air volume and rises too fast too big speed and too fast ,Can throw the oil and promote combustion if necessary, so can prevent having four layers of powder and in charge of exerting oneself and increasing sharply the phenomenon, because the intersection of coal and the intersection of powder and density increase, play, fire function too at the same time, strip, also should close A, the intersection of B layer and week air door of the circle that powder in charge of that correspond to manually later stage, so can play and reduce the centre of the flame, reduce the warm function of vapour.
In a word, in the course of opening and stopping the # 3 and rubing should have lead, pay attention to, open different stage pigeonhole the intersection of vapour and warm influence of change to vapour in the course rubed to park, and pay attention to the movement situation of the vapour machine pitch, it can’t be too quickly and too big to adjust, preventing the vapour from being warm and shaking causes ultraly and warmly.
In order to prevent personal shocking by electricity indirectly, electric fire and heat stability of the circuit that happen because of earthing trouble of distribution line, propose needing to set up the earthing trouble to protect in the low-voltage distribution line in current design and operation. Here <<The low-voltage electric current protects and acts as protection of electric current and concurrently earthing trouble at the same time to protect, a preface electric current is protected or the surplus electric current is protected, they are all one of the current normal earthing trouble protective measures that allow in China, must use with the connection of electric potential in conjunction in the course of implementing, could improve protective action.
In the construction of wind-powered electricity, the construction of the project is mainly reflected by installation homework of the air blower with the work load especially, generally speaking, the track type hoist has served as and hoisted the apparatus protagonist, the automobile crane serves as the supporting role, the main task finishes the installation of three major parts such as the cabin, tower tube and impeller. The following specializes in the engineer of construction enterprise that the wind-powered electricity is installed, according to the article that the construction experience has been written for many years, for relevant reader’s reference.
In recent years, the country has specially arranged the new energy demonstration project relying mainly on the fact that the wind-force generated electricity, the scale of China’s wind-power electricity generation is developed rapidly as emerging rapidly in large numbers. Have a plurality of installed capacity whether 100MW and wind electric field of the above already build or build already in Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Guangdong, Inner Mongol, Xinjiang, Ningxia and other places at present. Our company enters the wind electric field to install the market since 1998, install the project in the building that has already finished a dozen wind electric fields at present, and accumulated certain installation and experience of management and talked about the experiences of technology and management on the electric field air blower installation of wind as follows, hope to exchange with the counterpart each other.
1,The air blower apparatus makes up
Air blower apparatus tube, cabin, hub, blade, box voltage transformer, and part such as being electric make up by base, tower mainly. The weight of different apparatus of the models is different, the height of the tube of tower is different, and the height of the tower tube is usually fixed with high distribution situation of the wind-force.
2,Require in the installation field
The intersection of Chinese and wind electric field construct and apparatus deposit the field have two kinds of types mainly at present, one to set up, deposit field temporarily in scene, concentrate on leaving in the temporary warehouse behind air blower apparatus the goods will be delivered, transport to hanging and decorate twice while installing. Another kind is to transport the apparatus of the air blower to hoisting and preserve transportation two times again live directly. In order to save the cost transported, the way in which the increasingly many wind electric field adopts the apparatus of the air blower once and puts in place. But strengthen the requirements for installation field like this, install all apparatuses that can preserve air blowers in the field each one, can let large-scale person who hang and auxiliary person who hang have, hoist position of apparatus. So it must be to planning the field, let the field accord with the demands for equipment installation of the air blower to reach the scene in the apparatus.
3,The air blower is hoisted
Main exertion of crane receive geographical environment, the intersection of road and state, apparatus parameter in the field mainly hoist, ‘ The cabin size, weight, tube height of tower Wait for the factor to influence. With the increase day by day of the air blower unit capacity, require the bigger in hoisting machinery. Under the field and spacious situation of road, generally use the track to hang and hoist. But if the road of construction site is relatively narrow, should consider using the tire type hoist at first. Because use the track to hang and hoist, if the road is narrow, need dismantling constantly and reinstallating the track to hang from a typhoon machine to another typhoon machine, have delayed time limit in this way, has strengthened the cost too. The air blower of China’s installation relies mainly on 1500kW model at present, such as Jiangsu such as the east, east platform of Jiangsu, wind electric fields such as Tongyu of Jilin, Fuxin of Liaoning, Hulun Buir, the Inner Mongol,etc.. The situation which China 1500kW air blower apparatus installs, should generally select to meet the hoist and mount requirement through the way that the large-scale track above 400t has been hung or the tire above 500t is hung at present.
The wind electric field is illustrated with examples with Tongyu, Jilin of Huaneng Group as follows: Huaneng Group the intersection of Jilin and the intersection of Tongyu and the intersection of wind and electric field the first stage of the project 100MW wind electric field, the unit capacity is 1500kW, amounts to 67. According to on-the-spot environment and technical parameter of the apparatus, confirm that it is 50* 50m2 to install the platform live, press as 15t/m2, deposit by 3 section tower tube, 1 of cabins, 3 blades, 1 of hub,etc. one of suits of air blower apparatuseses together, and meet a 450t track and hang and assist station location requirement which hangs the apparatus of the hanging machine with one.
According to the apparatus parameter and environmental factor of the scene, through calculating, we confirm CC2500/450t track is hung for main force’s hanging machine, according to supreme height that cabin takes one’s place ‘ About 72m ,And then confirm the length of hanging the arm is 96m, so can guarantee when the impeller is hoisted, mouth take one’s place to cabin and the cabin will not touch the pole flange of impeller ‘ The hanging machine hangs the arm ,Thus has avoided the complicated homework of shifting of the hanging machine or going off course in the cabin etc..
4,The apparatus unloads
It mainly refers to unloading of major possession apparatuses such as the tube of tower, cabin,etc. that the wind electric field apparatus unloads. The cabin is the most important part of the air blower, it is the heaviest apparatus too. According to the technical parameter of the apparatus and mechanical actual conditions of scene, can adopt the unit to unload or dual machines unload. The electric field tower tube heaviest 40t of wind such as Hulun Buir of the Inner Mongol, the cabin 54t, therefore adopt one pair of machines a 65t crane and a 50t crane Unload. The tower tube unloads with the specialized hoist and mount tool. The cabin unloads by hoisting the roof beam and double machines.
5,The air blower apparatus is hoisted
The air blower apparatus hoists meaning mainly major possession apparatuses such as the tube cabin of the tower, impeller,etc. are hoisted, among them the most important link hoist cabin and impeller ‘ The assemblies of hub and blade . Most serious cabin person who hang receive force to be even most loud; To receive wind, most heavy area have blade, strict with wind speed, require wind speed greater than 8 m/s. for consider convenience and easy to operate that blade hoist generally, position of person who hang should consider, meet requirement of cabin, want, meet hoist and mount requirement of impeller too when cabin hoist. We require main force person who hang hang the intersection of arm and flange in the cabin generally ‘ Connect flange of the hub ,It is much more convenient to hoist taking one’s place to the impeller like this, does not need to move the hanging machine to adjust the position not need going off course to adjust the position of the cabin either ,But put in place once of hanging machine. If side hoist cabin need, move position of crane or go off course and satisfy the hoist and mount of the impeller also, hoist situation analysis according to the apparatus of the air blower, choose the large-scale main force’s hanging machine to be generally the elevation the height of the top of the cabin taking one’s place in the cabin In addition, about 20m, but main force’s hanging machine hangs the length that the arm needs.
When impeller hoist, demand, pay attention to change of wind speed at any time, 2 blade slip away rope according to the lashing of technical requirement above. Each one slips away the rope needs 5- 6 people, cooperating commands personnel to carry on elasticity adjustment. When the impeller is connected with the cabin, need 2- 4 locating studs appropriate in size to carry on the localization, then loose the hook to connect slowly.
At the time of the tube hoist and mount of the tower, each bolt moment of connection reaches the hanging machine of Panasonic at the time of the technical requirement of going of ” installation manual “, carry on the next hoist and mount job.
According to the characteristic of the air blower tower tube, carry on the homework except according to hoisting the safety code during installation, should also pay attention to the following several points:
Before the tube of tower is lifted, all cables in monitoring device, and it is essential to carry on and strengthen the measure, guarantee the cable is not damaged in the course of hoisting.
Tower must finish protective measure of leaking electricity at the homework in the tube, check the cable.
Hoist ins and outs at the time of verse and middle festival tower tube, fix the temporary safety rope on the tube of tower top, ensure the safety of personnel’s upper and lower towers tube of homework, after hanging and installing tube of one section of towers, install the permanent safety rope well.
Tower tube connect, command, stand in ground until person get in touch at the interphone and the intersection of tower and the intersection of tube and platform by jack-up, and command hanging machine movements; When the cabin reaches the tube of tower to connect with the cabin with the impeller, the jack-up is commanded to hoist the homework on commanding right to be commanded and transferred to the tube platform of the tower by the jack-up of ground, commanded hanging machine movements through the interphone by it.
The general model demands to install tower tube and cabin of upside on the same day and finish.
6,On-the-spot management of construction
Because the wind electric field exists and installs time shorter, such characteristics as the long-term wind-force is heavy, so have big flowability to construct to pay the wind-powered electricity project, short, such characteristics as homework, different wind electric field terms are widely different under the environment of gale for a long time, the execution conditions are abominable in time limit. Because short in time limit, so work and get accommodation some adopt, put up the simple and easy room or rent the local house owed by a citizen to solve temporarily generally, this brings certain difficulty to on-the-spot management of construction. So the main administrative staff should enter the construction site ahead of time, collect materials, surrounding environment, natural environment materials of constructing live, then take the corresponding and effective measure ahead of time according to the construction characteristic and fully utilize local resources, so as to ensure construction goes on normally in order.
7,Management of construction under greater situation of the wind-force
The characteristic of the homework in case of larger wind-force must exist for a long time in the wind electric field. So no matter during the homework or the large-scale crane is parked while staying, must consider that there is the largest wind speed situation. If the condition of the wind is greater than the restriction value that parked, must reduce the boom to the ground in time. If conditions permit in the field, should reduce the boom system in the direction against the wind. Must consider the changes of wind-force and wind direction in time, collect information in advance every day. In order to do the work of taking precautions against well in time, the crane arm pole employs the windproof anchor to be done well fixedly after falling.
When track hang, shift, speed generally unsuitable to exceed 500m/h hang arm to be long, easy to meet accident person who hang and side look through ,It is flat before shifting to push the running route with the bull-dozer. Hung a driver by the track and taken charge of commanding long while shifting, the track hangs the front, left and right track and has the special messenger to guard, guarantee the angle of front and back track does not exceed 3 degrees, contained angle of left and right track does not exceed 2 degrees. The locality must lay the base plate of the way while pressing incompletely, will allocate lighting facilities while shifting at night.
In the construction course, observe the weather state at any time, predict the gale that informs of the track to hang a captain in time. Crane driver receive the intersection of gale and advance notice, should stop homework at once, rise to cliver supreme position, then lie prone the pole touches the arm pole head in the ground or puts the arm pole on the iron plate stool, shut off the engine, lock the operating room, personnel withdraw.
The unit in charge of construction must work out before construction constructing and organize designing, should also include the temporary power consuming scheme of construction site in the design. The temporary power consuming scheme involves the security of power consuming personnel directly, concern construction speed and project quality too. ” the construction site is with the safe technical specification of electricity temporarily ” to stipulate: The temporary power consuming apparatus is in 50KW and 50KW the above one in 5, more than 5 or total capacity of apparatus, should work out and construct and organize designing with the electricity temporarily. Temporary the intersection of power consuming and apparatus and the intersection of apparatus and total amount under person 50KW, should make, use the intersection of electricity and technological measure and the intersection of electricity and fire prevention measure safely under 5. And the managerial measure taken that it is for realizing the safety in production, on the shelter, technically that the safe practice measure is. Particularly, it is in construction, to the characteristic of the project, environment of construction site, construction method, work in the organization, method of operation, machinery, the intersection of power and apparatus that use, turn the intersection of distribution and facility into, erect tool and every safe protection facility,etc., make, guarantee the safety measure that construct really. Safe practice it is pointed for measure to take, can’t deal with, at will, briefly. Introduce the construction site as follows with the security practice of the electricity temporarily now:
First, earthing, connect zero to protect
1,Constructing should be adopted and clicked 380/220V three-phase Line four grounded neutrally directly to make low-voltage power system with the electricity, its protected mode should accord with the following regulations. Should click the low-voltage side of voltage transformer neutrally and ground directly while powering by the specialized voltage transformer at the construction site, and adopt TN-S to receive zero and protect the system. Supply power end connect for the intersection of three-phase and whom Line four supply power zero protect TN In the system, should enter the neutral lines N of a place Repeated earthing line, and draw and protect Line zero PE thread separately from connecting the place at the same time ,Form some TN-S and receive zero and protect the system.
2,It should accord with the following regulations to construct and protect and connect zero and repeated earthing with the electricity: In receive zero must protect metal outer cover of the electric equipment in the system and protect Line zero PE thread Connect. Should protect Line zero from specialized voltage transformer, generator and some neutral places, or enter the neutral line N line of the thread in the electricity distribution room, total power distribution box Have and draw. Protecting the unity of Line zero marks as green / yellow double-colored insulating wire, can’t use the green / yellow double-colored line to make the line of load under any circumstance. Protect Line zero PE thread Must be with working Line zero N line Isolate, forbid protecting Line zero and working Line zero to mix and connect, use with. Can’t install and control the switch or fuse box to protect zero on the line. Section to protect Line zero should smaller than, work the intersection of Line zero and section correspondingly. The protection Line zero section linking with electric equipment should not be smaller than many bursts of insulating copper wires of 2.5mm2.
3,Protect connecting the place repeatedly and is no less than three of Line zero, should set up at electricity distribution room or total power distribution box respectively, and the middle places and terminal places of the distribution line. Until TN receive, protect repeated earthing should with protect Line zero, connect in the system, each repeat the intersection of earth resistance and value, should greater than 10Ω by zero.
Repeat earth function: Reduce and leak electricity the apparatus to the ground voltage; A voltage appearing on the line while reducing three phases unevenly; When Line zero breaks, lighten the harmfulness of the accident; Shorten the accident time of electric leakage; Improve defending thunder performance of the circuit.
Repeat the earth requirement: The earthing body of every repeated earthing device employs more than 2 angle steel, steel tube or round steel, can’t use the aluminium conductor or whorl steel. The horizontal distance between two earthing body is suitable for 5m, the earthing body is long better with 2.5m, connect the terrestrial pole smoothly and deeply such that the top distance is greater than or equal to 0.6m.
4,Notes: After the repeated earthing, forbid connecting with working Line zero in circuit or any point of the apparatus from total power distribution box. Do not allow to pass any switch. When setting up in the power distribution box or switch and carrying the sub board, job line must carry sub board and take the insulating measure between the metal the intersection of case and body. Protecting device of electric leakage.
Second, leak electricity and protect
1,The choice of the protecting device of electric leakage: In the switch case ‘ The end grade The intersection of electric leakage and person who protect inside, amount its leak, make electric current, should greater than 30MA electronically, amount leak, make time, should greater than 0.1s electronically, when being used in the moist place, its amount leaks and does the electric current and should not be greater than 15MA electronically, amount should not be greater than 0.1s while leaking and doing time electronically. The electric leakage protecting device in the total power distribution box, its amount leaks and does the electric current and should be greater than 30MA electronically, amount leak, make time should greater than 0.1 s. and amount their leak, make electric current I electronically electronically Leak and do time t with amount electronically Product should big 30MA.S last 30MA.s I.T .
3,Notes: Construct the intersection of power consuming and power distribution box, switch case should adopt the iron plate ‘ The thickness is 1.2- 2.0mm Or the fire-retardant insulating material is made. Can’t use the wooden power distribution box, switch case and wooden electric apparatus mounting plate. Install and leak electricity the power consuming apparatus of the switch, it is still indispensable to connect zero and protect. Because leak electricity the switch have certain defects: First, it to can only protect single-phase to get an electric shock, when people touch two phase at the same time or among them one phase, and at the working Line zero, the electric leakage switch shields; Second, when the electric current is smaller than leaking electricity the specified movement electric current of the switch to leak electricitying, leak electricity the switch does not act, it recurs to be to flow into, flow out electric current, can act while being uneven because of zero the intersection of preface and the intersection of electric current and mutual inductor leak electricity, while being other, so the electric current of other lookses will be greater than the electric current of specified movement to act. Protect Line zero, can’t cross, leak electricity switch, protect Line zero, must step, receive the first electric leakage front side the switch enter the end of line Line zero or connecting having in zero.
In sum, the intersection of unit in charge of construction and foundation construct drawing, need according to actual conditions and project of the construction site, confirm the quantity of using electric apparatus of construction site. After fully finding out about situations such as the topography, ground form, underground pipelines, buildings around of the construction site,etc., confirm the choice of the circuit and apolegamies of different apparatuses. Use the technological measure of electricity safely: Include safe with measure that electricity take technically and for protect safe with electricity and every measures that dependability take organizationally of power supply, a series of contents such as setting-up and organizational management that for instance various systems,etc..
Summary: Manage the application in electric engineering construction of management mode of research project of angle from building, have described several restriction factors in construction speed and security management of present power engineering, and combined production practicesing puts forward the concrete and effective measure, has carried on the constructive discussion with the safe incentive mechanism in setting up, perfecting the system of responsibility in safe production.
Keyword: Project management; Safety in production
The greatest characteristic compared with traditional management of department of the project management is that the project management pays attention to comprehensive management, and the project management has strict time limits. The project management must produce the products not totally definite within definite time limit through the course not totally definite, schedule and progress are controlled and often produced very large pressure to the project management. The most basic function of the project management is as follows, plan, organize and appraise and control.
1,Engineering construction employs the completion countermeasure of the project management
1.1 The key link of electric engineering construction is managed
The electric engineering construction key link can be divided into the feasibility research of project, project plan, project organization, quality control, safety management, contract management, expense control and progress control etc..
Feasibility research is the important content of the previous work of the project, can control scale and direction of investment from the macroscopic, improve the project management; The microcosmic can reduce the investment decision fault while, improve the investment results. Feasibility research is that the project manages important intelligence investment in earlier stage, this pen invests one can’t be few.
Strengthen the contract management of the project, avoid the economic dispute. Project contract refer to the intersection of project and owner or agent and the intersection of project and contractor their or supply goal or content stipulated that people point to in order to finish a definite project with, define mutual relation between rights and obligations and written agreement reached. The project contract must meet the following requirement:
1 The consistency of each other of the contract: Project contract must set up in one both sides above the acceptable proposition foundation;
2 Remuneration principle: The project contract should have a unified calculation and way of the payment amount;
3 Contract rule: Only when the contractor worked according to the contract rule, they will receive the restraint of the contract, and enjoy the protection of the contract;
4 The contract purpose of the contract law: There must be a legal purpose or subject matter in the contract, it should not be forbidden by the law;
5 According to the contract type that the law confirms. The project contract should reflect rights and obligations of both sides, this will be regarded as the final result used for contract, and the type of contract depends on herein.
Normal bid is the assurance of the project quality, ” fair, just, open ” Principle standardize bid assurance; Realize bid law ” Three is common ” Assurance of the principle. In bid, carry out employing, bid law conscientiously, protect the interests of every party of the project in accordance with the law, pay attention to employing, integrality which the bid procedure implements, if necessary, allow to employ, the inefficient situation exist in the bid course, in order to guarantee employing, openness, justice and fairness of the bid course, prevent the corrupt appearance.
In order to safeguard the system of competitive bidding effectively, guarantee the fair play of the market of power construction, guarantee project quality, should strengthen propaganda strength and law enforcement system to the Law on Public Bidding on one hand, aggravate punishment to the illegal activities, to the severe blow offending against the criminal law; To on the other hand, handle the relation of administrative supervision and ownership tender project autonomy well. The administrative department of the government should exercise the supervisory duty according to the functions and powers of the legal provision, administrative power can’t directly with intervene concrete method, bid activity, can’t replace power that should be exercised independently by the project legal person.
Quality control is one of the important contents of the project management of the construction, China has been emphasizing all the time, must carry out ” important project, the quality first ” Policy,it is obvious what has been worked quality important for intensity,must pay attention to quality’s working enterprise, it is effective means to participate in market competition to improve product quality and service, strive for users, dominate the market and develop basic assurance of enterprises.
To construction enterprise, it is an extremely important quality management to set up, perfect the quality system, there are clear quality policy, quality goal, there are sound organization and quality duty, there are quality assurance manual and quality system procedure file which cover the whole company’s quality management, there is practical homework guide book with very strong practicality, any work has file true and reliable records, the whole quality work is received in people’s complete control.
Advocate building the up-market project, its purpose lies in through the high-standard quality requirement, impel enterprises to find out disparity in management consciousness, craft standard and worker’s manipulative ability,etc., start from bit, reflect the finely melting of course operation, reflect the seriousness that the system implements, pass ” the owner’s satisfaction ” To define the survival ability and market ability of enterprises. ” masterpieces ” Intension be lasted approval and satisfaction, so need by rigorous attitude, consummate craft, scientific procedure, superior equipment and superior material come to organize implementation, guarantee to carry out science and rationality of standard regulation, accuracy and operation course. Establish masterpiecesing needs finely pondering over its basic intension required urgently, handle affairs according to procedure, contract strictly, with course being up-market to guarantee result masterpieces, thus reflect enterprises pursue and keep the same with goal behavior.
It is one of the key control goals in a project construct that the progress of the project is controlled, it guarantees the project is finished on schedule, arrange the resource supply rationally, cost-effective important measure. Should allocate project organization and resource rationally according to contract requirement of the project and enterprise plan before the project goes into operation, work out the project progress and plan the network chart, and carry on scientific adjustment and optimization to it; In construction, because on-the-spot condition belong to dynamic change, actual progress and it plans progress to be can not be at all identical, in order to guarantee to finish as scheduled in time limit, must carry on scientific dynamic follow-up to the project progress, optimize and adjust the progress in the original plan of the project in time.
Use network plan technology can carry on the intersection of project and the intersection of progress and formulation that network plan, evaluation, implement dynamic control conveniently and resource optimize the equilibrium, cost control, expenses budgeting one’s time rationally and manpower, material resources by saving most, thus obtain the best economic and social benefit.
” key route ” It is a route of determining total time limit of project, it is the principal contradiction of progress management of the project, must manage and control especially. Otherwise, because key process progress may influence the plan total time limit of the project when delaying. So confirm ” The key route ” And it is very important to carry on further investigation on its key process.
In electric construction constructs, will often meet and demand to generate electricity by way of merging two or more grid systems ahead of time or because the design, apparatus, building construction delay handing in to cause the phenomenon of deflation in time limit well, the most common method is to increase machinery, increase manpower, lengthen working time,etc., time makes us led the key of doing the progress well and controlling does not lie in a network progress or lateral road is pursued which kind of expression is used the way controlled t, and lie in which kind of science, strict control means you adopt and reach the best coordination and effective adjustment of people, machine, material, achieve the goal that the progress controls finally.
3 control points controlled as the project are that control of progress, quality control and expenses are controlled separately, must pay attention to the following several points:
While controlling in progress, quality, expenses three of the project management, the progress plan is the management idea of leading flag. In the contract file of the project, the content related to the fact that the progress is planned occupies important position, owner, contractor, designers, all to the great concern of planned speed of project. Progress plan, should meet the intersection of completion date and requirement that contract stipulate, one that is old management mode ” the plan can not be happened to change ” Non- serious phenomenon, change into ” plan to change in guidance ” Benign management environmental in.
Want benefit from management of quality cost. Deal with the interreaction between several respects in the cost of quality correctly, it is rational to adopt the department, advanced person’s practical technological measure, on the premise of guaranteeing the construction quality reaches the designing requirement level, reduce the cost of project as much as possible, prevent the project from presenting the surplus phenomenon of quality in an all-round way, lead to the fact and finish much project quantity, the passive state with low economic benefits.
Want benefit on controlling from the cost in time limit. How to deal with the relation with cost in time limit is an important subject in the cost management of the project under construction, management and controlling for construction enterprise and project department of the cost in time limit, it is the better not to be the shorter, but need to seek some cost in best time limit by reasonable adjustment of time limit, control the cost in time limit in the minimum.
1.2 The expenses of electric engineering construction are managed
1.2.1 Pay attention to the cost of project to manage
The existence of an enterprise, the key lies in whether enterprises could offer the short, low building products of fabrication cost in time limit high in quality for society, and realize the greatest economic benefits of enterprises among them. At same the intersection of price and competence, who can control the cost effectively, who makes the decision condition of surviving. In the face of the challenge, the development of every construction enterprise is very uneven, some enterprises pursue the project management, strengthen cost management, has made better economic benefits, but some enterprises do not adapt to the turn of the market, cost management method and measure are improper, the economic benefits come down year by year.
I thought, every construction enterprise can pass inside and contract the management mode that the economic responsibility system improved the project manager according to one’s own characteristic, make the relation between every functional department of the company and project manager office in order, set up in order to construct in the organization as the focal point, every functional department of the company serves for the project, the project manager fully exercises authority within the scope authorized by company, plan, organize, coordinate, manage the project implementation in charge ofed, besides finishing quality, security, time limit,etc. index, encouragement and tied mechanism of the project total cost goal performance of the key examination, thus achieve the goal of lowering costs.
The cost management of the project is finished by personnel of manager office of the project, in order to control the cost effectively, the project manager should be fewer but better on the administrative staff’s outfit on one hand, and want the rational arrangement on working time limit, on the other hand should decompose cost responsibility to implement to each post, implement the special messenger, and make great efforts to make every member of the manager office of the project agree in pursuing the cost goal and means to reach this goal as much as possible, restrain from and guide the personal action, guarantee the whole project every construction activity meets the target of booking with unified norm and responsibility. To the way of rewards and punishments of the manager office of the project according to the company, appoint the corresponding measure of rewarding and punishing at the same time, in order to carry on overall management, whole management, dynamic management to the cost, form a clear, responsibility of dividing the work to people’s cost management system. Make it become conscious action of every administrative staff to lower costs.
Because of the particularity of the construction work, establish project after the manager office, can project according to technicality or the intersection of project and range, sublet give several subcontractor by contractor or way that contract for labour and materials usually. Whether subcontractor and material trader choose appropriately, whether the contract is complete, not merely influence project progress and quality, there will also be very great influence. So standardized a subcontractor and Optional System of Shang of material, and implemented contract strictly, very important to controlling the cost. So, should pay attention to doing the following several jobs well: The company should set up the file to once cooperative subcontractor, material trade, and after the project or complete when go on, relevant personnel and project manager of the company examine them together. Through appraising, to the bad expelling in time of manifestation, and should cooperate to the new contractor or material trader with a high reputation, with strong ability according to the market situation.
The fee of material occupies significant proportion in the cost of project, and a project often has more than one hundred kinds of materials. In construction, try hard to make sure it is qualified that every subsection constructs once, reduce and do the expenses repaired over again; The existing facilities of rational utilization, reduce the organizational cost; Improve the mechanical equipment and material utilization ratio of the turnover, reduce measures such as the rental,etc. and lower costs.
Because the cycle of constructing of project is long, the factor influencing cost is numerous, the cost of the project is always in the constant change, so must set up complete cost monitoring system.
The cost price of the project, regard project as the unit and list accounts alone. Cost of whom cost price make before the project implementation manage warming-up exercise, it is foundation and precondition that the cost administrative system of the project operates, should construct and organize situations such as the dispositions of the design and factor of production,etc. according to the goal cost that the internal contract confirm, according to the construction speed plan, confirm that controls the basis of the cost in project moon, cost price and total cost price construction course of the project in season, make personnel, manager office of project, no matter go on at which kind of progress does it reach in project, can all know that know one’s own goal cost in advance, in order to take measures to control the cost.
The cost accounting of the project is to check and calculate the forming of different expense expenditure and cost in construction. Do a good job of the cost accounting of the project as the cost centre of enterprises in the manager office of the project, managing every link to the cost offers the essential materials. So must establish the system of intact cost accounting, collect the actual cost data correctly, and according to the information, use the special scientific method, analyze execution result of a cost price of every point of parts month by month, find out the factors of reason and influence why the cost saves and overspends, seeking the way to further reduce and seek to further lower costs and method, and write, offer the intersection of cost and analysis report and profit and loss predict the report, so that company leader and project manager know the cost situation of the project at any time, take the effective measure, the cost is overspended seriously, influence the economic benefits of enterprises while preventing project completion. After the project is completed, the manager office of the project will be turned to the new project, so should organize the relevant personnel, clear up surplus material and machinery in the scene in time, dismiss the personnel that do not need, retrieve and pay internal and external debts, in order to prevent after project completion, continue various expenses including administration expense to take place. Meanwhile, because of participating in the leaving under order of constructors, various materials are easy to lose, so, should do a good job of the settlement of completing total cost according to the cost accounting situation in the construction course, and according to the cost accounting situation in the construction course, do a good job of the settlement of completing total cost and combine its result of the foundation, appraise the cost management of the project, summarize its gain and loss, reward and punish to project manager and relevant personnel in time.
1.2.2 Strengthen the claim consciousness of the contract
Construct the claim is because a construction enterprise is not the expenses that extra work or loss demand to get not including a contract regulation that a self reason happens and behavior that time compensates. That is to say that so long as goes beyond the original contract the losses or added burden that the behavior stipulated brings to institute of unit in charge of construction, no matter in time or economical,so long as can’t obtain by extra payment guarantee from contract regulation, the unit in charge of construction has the right to put forward the damage statement to construction unit, receive the compensation on economy and time, it is obvious the claim is a proper claim, it should be the rational compensation striving to get too.
After the construction enterprise finds the claim or realizes that there are potential claim chances, should request one’s own claim purpose in writing to supervising the engineer or construction unit in time immediately, this is a very important step, it marks the beginning of a claim. This kind of notice generally involves the claim memory, does not involve claim number, it is brief and concise to require. It is that the construction enterprise makes and compensates one of the primary conditions that should be observed to notify the claim purpose in advance, also the construction enterprise keeps the good consciousness best method of claim during carrying out in contract, also can prevent exceeding the deadline for demanding compensation and losing the claim chance.
Success of the claim of constructing provides the strong identification material for claim and makes the reasonable believable explanation in the construction enterprise to a great extent.
Therefore, carry on data-prepring for the claim and produce evidence, it is extremely important to set up high-level file management information system. Pay attention to recording while demanding to construct, project minutes or memorandum, bid file and project progress plan, check and calculate the materials, project photo and project audiovideo materials in project. Especially check and calculate and use all kinds of primitively to guarantee in retainment and financial affairs to various edition construction drawings, it needs all these to be important claim materials.
The intersection of claim and report send out claim to construction unit construction enterprise purpose one requirement that submit to it offer certain economic compensation or formal report that lengthened time limit behind the notice. The claim report generally includes content such as topic, incident, reason, cause and effect analysis, claim expense and time limit.
The construction enterprise is after submitting the claim report, can’t be passive to wait to adopt the threat means of stopping work etc., should find out the claim from construction unit and handle the situation voluntarily, according to the question that both sides put forward, answer or offer and mend and permit the materials in time, with equal and mutually beneficial spirit, to coordinate the positions of both sides, make the claim solve satisfactorily.
In a word, the claim is that the use economic lever of construction enterprise carries on the important means of effective management to the project to construct, it is a comprehensive system engineering, need exploring constantly in practice. To construct quality that claim punish, reflect the intersection of construction enterprise and high or low prices of management level. With setting-up and development of the market of building, the claim work can’t be ignored more and more.
2,Project manager’s role in project management
The project manager is the agent in the project that the legal person of an enterprise wins a bid, it exercises the main functions and powers during the scope of authority, content, time limit that legal representative of enterprises stipulate. Person directly responsible that the project manager realized the goal of an independent project under construction quality, time limit, security, cost,etc., one market-oriented enterprise, connect owner, person liable of post that service support, it is the foreign windows and moulding the incarnation of the corporate image of enterprises.
Entrust and construct project manager’s certain authority is to guarantee a project manager bears the precondition of corresponding responsibility. In fulfilment of the project manager’s duty, construct the project manager must have certain authorities, these authorities should be awarded by the legal representative, and decide specifically in form of system and contract, but enterprises must have equilibrium to control strength, authority should be arrogated by the enterprise-like corporation, the appointment right, making decisions on operation and management, contract of the chief leading cadre of the project should be mastered to sign right etc. by enterprises, in order to aspire for stability to advance, non- out of hand.
3,Other relevant supplementary measures
3.1 Strengthen the role in project management of the government and introduce, study and use the foreign and advanced experience of management of project for reference actively, summarize the project management experience and lessons of China conscientiously, make normal project management policy and measure, integrate with the international project management as soon as possible.
The issuing and implementation of ” the Law on Public Bidding “, has offered the legal guarantee for bidding work of the project, governments at all levels and department, want, implement conscientiously, rigorously enforce construction process, according to ” six make ” Demand to carry on the project management, devote more efforts to supervising in the government, stop the black case work and emergence of different violation of laws and rules incidents.
In actual life of us, countless fact tell us whether every will pay the painful cost while ignoring the safe behavior, for instance: Gansu 3.5, personal casualty accident of Baoji 3.23, warns to us, operate violably, habitual violation of the rules, empiricism and decline in alertness are formidable enemies which produces the accident, painful lesson tell us behavior to ignore rules and regulations any to can leave one the intersection of tragic experience and history that cannot bear to look back on. The fact proves that only puts the safe work in the first place of every job, could guarantee the improvement of the economic benefits and stability of social environment.
Pursue fashionably, it is perhaps a kind of fashion to advocate popularly. But once it is popular to become the mainstream of the society, that kind of existence is in a beautiful thing of Central Plains of hearts of people, will become floating smoke and passing clouds, the ones that change are overshadowed. However, ” safe ” Constantly, spread all over every corner produced, lived a life to people everywhere by everything, do not have when ubiquitous, does not have in our life. People should pay attention to traffic safety while being out; Should notice in life the hygiene prevents disease safely; Should pay attention to security of life and property,etc. in production ,So, ” safe ” It is a topic never out of date.
” glad to go to work, go home safely ” It has been the slogan which a lot of industrial enterprises advocated all the time, explain the work of one day of completion that people can be safe and smooth in purpose, safe coming back home and neutralizing family’s reunion, expressed the units at various levels to pay attention to safely, thirst for the safe wish at the same time. Now, ” three are safe ” The extensive development of the work, has explained the whole of society and cared about security, paid attention to the safe intensity further. Especially we realize safe the importance to us as produce worker of first line is should sober. If we are careless in operation the strict one is in accordance with the rules of safety work, do a good job of safe protection, once the accident happens, it is ourselves that the first one that is injured is inevitable. So, in order to make sure that does not injure oneself, not injure others and not injure by others, we should take action from me, form and make one from sidelight, tighten this safe string, will never relax the requirement to oneself, handle affairs according to the rules strictly, make the accident far away from us, really make sure the accident symptom does not take place on me, does not appear in our unit.
” safety work ” It is a long-term job, it is careless and relaxing to permit no, let alone put the posture, go through the motions, bluff. If someone takes the safety work to regard as a trifling matter, will receive dully and punish finally. We must accomplish unanimous between the higher and lower levelsly, unite as one in the real work. Can’t do firmly the higher have policies while the lower own ways of getting around them, transmit and carry out two leather methods, it is in a constant state of anxiety in order to deal with and check let alone simply, influence normal working and living seriously, so final a result is to cause people to do oneself great harm. We should fulfill safe prevention work, take shape institutionalizedly, make sure everybody supervises, do own duty, it is shameful and keeping the good atmosphere with glorious discipline to raise and break rules and regulations extensively, accomplish leader really with same, check same, all proceed from real work, permeate safety work through each corner.
As the saying goes ” tight is the love, hurt loose ” ,Right, implementing ” safety law ” will have strict supervision mechanism soon, will devote more efforts to examining, ignoring law and discipline to those, the person daring to resist demands and violate discipline should deal with strictly. Never tolerant and accommodating, let the persons who will dare to violate disciplines desist from doing something before it is too late, must not explain favor, save face, will carry out safe discipline to regard as the chip that an emotion will be exchanged.
” safe responsibility is weightier than Mount Tai ” It is alike according to the fantasy which a person it is not, it is not an empty slogan, but summarize to come out through the constant practice, we all work to go on around this safe centre at present. Must implement regulation of ” the safety law ” conscientiously, divide the work safe responsibility ring upon ring, carry out safe responsibility system strictly, set up successive check, organize tightly, and safety factor eliminated in the bud the intersection of accident and symptom.
Everything stands in advance, does not abolish in advance. It is sung when and work in our life loudly that only ” safe in order to produce, production must be safe ” This theme, could really fulfill the safe work. All of us should have the adequate preparation of the situation happen suddenly in tight and careful division of labour, careful disposing and dealing with various on every link in the real work, will remain calm while going wrong, it is minimum to control accident range, avoid bleeding and injuries and deaths incident effectively.
” safe ” It is a permanent topic. When and develop into the themes of the times in the peace, become even more important safely, the rapid development that peaceful and peaceful living needs are safe, economic needs security, development of the times to need even more to be safe. So we carry safe work through to the end a as before one, become, abide by rule, watch over model of discipline really, dare to struggle to various behavior of endangering the safe one, really make sure to ” often want to talk safely in security, personnel everywhere ” . Let safe alarm bell agitate, in us in the ear, let us make joint efforts often, have beautiful tomorrow together.
Summary: The project management has already got general application and development in engineering construction as the systematic office procedure taking project as target, it is not general to apply to engineering design in China yet, relatively design the sector application early in petrochemical industry, and comparatively ripe, water and electricity design the trade to be yet at exploring, summarizing and improving stage. According to the change of the management mode of engineering design, combine middly and southernly and survey and design the research institute on the dragon beach, three boards of small stream, implement the situation of designing project management to large-scale hydroelectric projects such as home dam, Hu Tiao Gorge,etc., implement the project management and carry on the discussion to the engineering design of water and electricity, help to improve project quality, lower costs, improve the competitiveness of the designing institute.
The project management is a systematic office procedure taking project as target, through using the limited resources of enterprise, to the plan that it is high-efficiency to carry on in the project, organize, command, coordinate, control and appraise, optimize overall dynamic management and comprehensive coordination of project goal to the project, in order to realize the maximization of customer’s interests. The modern project management involves the range to manage, the intersection of time and management, the intersection of cost and management, manpower resources management, risk management, quality control, procurement management, link up, manage and integrate, manage nine major the intersection of knowledge and field, and the project launches, plans, carries out, controls and finishes up five pieces of course. The 20th century, strike stupid the intersection of cloth and leather, the intersection of investment and financing and system, project of China, build management system, change greatly, pursue progressively ” And construction project supervisory system that event law ” has constructed, has improved management level, economic benefits, social benefit, the project management is paid attention to and application China. At present, it is already comparatively general to apply the project management to construction, but apply to engineering design and at exploring, summarizing and improving stage.
Design the change of the management mode
In planned economy era, the designing institute only needs to finish the task that the responsible department of the goverment assigns as the public institution, the trade characteristic is very obvious, it is very strong to monopolize color, the designing institute does not need the competition, only need to finish the task according to state plan and rules norm, therefore cause heavy technology but the situations of not heavy management and benefit. After pursuing the technological economic responsibility system and commercialized management of the public institution of designing unit, designing unit begin, march toward market, impel technology severely its but progressively to pay attention to, change by management and benefit light management and benefit. The designing unit of petrochemical industry trade complies with this situation, take the lead in pursuing and designing the project management, and through practising improving constantly, ripe, norm. Especially with the accession to the WTO and gradual setting-up and improving of market economy of China, the designing unit reforms system for enterprises, design the social and economic environment that enterprises faced to change greatly. Set up the property relations, organization system and management system which accord with the modern enterprise’s requirement progressively according to the requirement for reforming system in designing unit, become ” clearly established ownership, blames right clearly, the division between politics and enterprises, management science ” With ” independent management, profit-and-loss responsibility, selfdiscipline, self-development ” Legal person entity and market competition subject. Requirement that the design management mode of approximate administration that era formed of planned economy can’t already meet enterprise’s development, set up the modern design management mode of meeting the needs of market economy, it seems very essential and urgent to improve enterprise’s management level and key competitiveness.
Design the project management with water and electricity
In pursuing the water conservancy of water and electricity and designing the project management, some designing units in China have already been explored, make many valuable experiences, differ from one another too. Middle and southern to survey and design the research institute ‘ Hereafter referred to as ” The middle and southern institute ” Survey and design the scientific research service to take as the leading factor with water and electricity, water conservancy as one, the ones that involve trades such as worker’s China Democratic National Construction Association, municipal administration, traffic, electricity,etc. are comprehensive to survey and design the research unit, with the country ” The development of western regions ” With ” transmission of electricity from the western to the eastern region ” Implementation, welcome the unprecedented opportunity for development. In order to guarantee the national large-scale key item surveys the designing quality and progress, improve the management level of the project, middle and southern institute to the intersection of dragon and beach, three board small stream, begin to implement the project management to the intersection of house and the intersection of dam, Hu Tiao Gorge,etc. and four major the intersection of water and electricity and design work of event. Project management organizational form is middle and southern institute it is at dragon beach, three boards of small streams, implement in house dam, Hu Tiao Gorge project with ” Project management for centre, specialized management, quality control for core ” Matrix type project management mode. Implement president’s leading the project manager responsibility system under, has made corresponding project management. According to characteristic and requirement of every project, the president employs the project manager selectively within the range of the whole institute, set up the manager office of the project. The project manager is within the scope authorized by president, Chamber of Representatives deals with all great items related to project foreign countries, responsible for the work relation with owner, related departments and local government; It is responsible for surveying and designing the progress, technology, quality and cost of scientific research to control of the project in an all-round way that internal; And accept the guidance of dealing in, financial affairs, quality of institute,etc. functional department, check, examine and supervise.
The manager office of the project is made up by project manager, always having, planning the engineer, quality engineer and assisting the administrative staff,etc.. The project to already going into operation, has established designing the representative office at the construction site, under the leadership of the project manager, responsible for having and taking the place of the work live in an all-round way. The manager office of the project is responsible for the formulation of the project plan, follow, supervise and adjust, so as to ensure the realization of the overall goal; Rigorously enforce it according to institute’s relevant regulations, make various supplementary measures, guarantee the realization of the quality goal of the project; According to the cost quota that the institute checks and ratifies, rigorously enforce the cost of control item; According to the quality of work load finished of every production division, products engineering level and quality, under institute’s macro adjustments and controls, finish surveying the inside of designing scientific research expenses to assign. It is mainly the control on plan, quality and funds that the project management of four major projects of implementation of the project management is implemented.
1 Planned management. Write project overall work program, annual work program and carry out the plan in quarter according to the overall goal of the project in all event department, assign every production to carry out stage by stage. Go on following, control to the implementation of the plan and check at any time, compare with planning the progress, find that offsets rectifying a deviation in time. Meanwhile, the project department, according to the project progress or changes of different external conditions, adjust the progress plan in time, so as to ensure the realization of the overall goal.
2 Quality control. For guarantee, design product quality, every project portion come, manage, work by every quality of project according to the intersection of quality and system strictly, all production division accepts the double leadership of event department and institute quality functional department to the intersection of quality and work of all project, project department and the courtyard quality functional department, to the quality problem found in the work, have the right to check, examine and the rewards and punishments. Meanwhile, every project portion accept institute functional department supervise and check to the intersection of project and whom quality work. Every project portion both establish a set of intact systems of rewards and penalties of quality, match with the quality functional department in the courtyard actively, spot check to designing product quality fixedly or irregularly, combine owners, feedback opinion of the unit in charge of construction, comment on designing product quality, the quality situation is offered the reward or punishment respectively according to the whole year. In addition, engage the senior consultant expert inside and outside the courtyard, carry on consultation and check on to key technological question and important design products in all event department.
3 The funds are managed. According to institute’s project management regulation, project expenses including expenses of manager office of the project, surveying and designing scientific research expenses, special expenses, other committee’s expenses, project manager’s award etc., the functional department of the institute checks and ratifies according to institute’s relevant regulations, the unified management through specialized department of manager office of the project. The project manager has event department funds, special expenses, sublets testing, committee’s