Summary: High voltage direct current transmission, the current conversion station has very high expectations for its reliability as the tap. Especially high voltage direct current current conversion valve, assemble by hundreds and thousands of components, it is a key component of the convertor station. Every pole adopts 12 pulsation current conversion valve blocks to make up, the whole valve is the suspension type structure. As to the high reliability that the current conversion station of the high voltage direct current requires, must guarantee by installing strict quality control, correct reasonable construction process, craft during debugging. The article takes convertor station of spring of ± 500KV dragon as examples, and make brief contrast with ± 500KV convertor station of natural bridge, have introduced general construction craft and procedure of the current conversion valve of the convertor station.
With the high-speed development of China’s economic construction, get the fast development too as the power construction of the economic base. Offering the power construction aspect of the electric energy, all kinds of power plants such as the nuclear power, electricity generation by thermal power and water and electricity of every capacity grade, appear in the north and south of great river of the motherland like the mushrooms after rain, provide the sufficient electricity for other trades, the economic construction of strong promotion China, especially the Three Gorges Projects of world interest, its installed capacity will reach more than 10 million kilowatts, will achive the top of world after building up. Also enable Chinese electricity to be more plentifully, low priced. In the electric wire netting construction aspect of the electric energy of transmission and distribution, alternating and direct current power transmission line of every voltage class, converting station, distribute at motherland from all directions like spider web, nodal point,it especially not build up already, in not building and ” the transmission of electricity from the western to the eastern region ” that built Network and ” sending outside in Sanxia ” The network, link a whole, the effective ability of exerting oneself of electrical load of national electric wire netting of growth and allocating ability of the electric wire netting of south and north, east and west of China even more, have increased the safety, reliability of operation of power netwoks of the country. Among them, the transmission system of high voltage direct current is in Chinese electric wire netting construction in recent years, can particularly enclose and can click. High voltage direct current both ends transmission system already built up, built in building and, can be rated as the artery in north and south of China, things electric wire netting. This is because remote high voltage direct current transmission is not merely little than the low, annual power loss of fabrication cost of alternating current circuit; The stability problem of synchronous operation between the alternating current systems of both ends does not exist; And direct-current transmission is networked, benefit the dispatch management of subregion, exchange intersystemly and support and restrain the accident from expanding promptly fast while helping the trouble; The intersection of because widening capability behind the networking and the intersection of transposition and the intersection of interdiction and the intersection of capacity and loud exchange circuit breaker. The voltage distribution is steady along the line of the direct-flow power transmission line at the same time; There is not capacitance current that does not need to connect the impedance in parallel to compensate. And direct-current transmission controls the protection system to mainly computerize at present and the photoelectric transition element forms, the speed of response is quick, it is accurate to regulate, easy to operate, can realize advantages such as multi-objective control,etc..
Direct-current transmission, have very high expectations for its reliability. Especially high voltage direct current current conversion valve, assemble by hundreds and thousands of components. Runtime, a large number of thyristors will be under the high pressure but personnel can’t be close. As to the high reliability that the current conversion station of the high voltage direct current requires, must guarantee by installing strict quality control, correct reasonable construction process, craft during debugging.
The current conversion valve will be exchanged under high pressure by the current conversion station / the high voltage direct current will be commutated or against turning into a high voltage direct current / key component exchanged under high pressure, every pole adopts 12 pulsation current conversion valve blocks to make up, the whole valve is the suspension type structure. Dragon’s spring convertor station silicon controlled rectifier valve is decorated on machinery according to the double threshold, there are six valve towers in all in the valve drawing room, each valve tower is made up of two form valves, 12 form valves are designed to be suspension type. Each form valve was connected in series by 15 controllable silicon blocks, each silicon controlled rectifier was by 6 controllable silicone layers, each controllable silicone layer includes a silicon controlled rectifier type is YST90 , one set stratifies circuit and a silicon controlled rectifier control unit TCU, the controllable silicon block connects each other in series. There are three pieces of silicon controlled rectifier that are stored in each form valve for being redundant. Contain the reactor in the bivalve structure. There is a direct-flow lighting arrester that is protected between between each bridge arm of the valve and wire electrode and ground wire. All of every thyristor touches off and monitors the valve controlled and silicon controlled rectifier monitoring device that the signal transfers the control room.
2 erection procedures and debugging in advance
Before 2.1 valves are installed, the valve drawing room must meet the following condition:
a.The valve drawing room has already been sealed the door, wall bushing And dust proof deal with ground and wall .
b.The work above the suspended structure of the valve, including the roof, cooling circuit, the optic fibre cable ducts,etc. have all already been finished.
c.The tower suspended structure of the valve is installed and adjusted and already earthed.
d.Put through, make the cooling circuit of outside get cleaning through connecting the flange with the delivery port on the water inlet.
2.2 erection procedures
Transport and store on 2.2.1
A half a layer of valves prostration is mounted in a wooden case, the inner cover has plastic films, the support member has felt cushions. Should notice while transporting and preserving:
1 Limited by the intensity, most prostration nest 4 cases and half a layer of valves.
2 Can’t exert concentrated load to the packing box
3 Can’t half needless to store put, while being unpacking valve.
4 Pay attention to rain-prooves, dampproof. Every packing box reflects the chemical examination card of moist situation in the case. Storing the planted agent reflects that is made moist the situation. Don’t be thought inner packing to have plastic film that can be neglected.
Install the specific purpose tool on 2.2.2
1 Wheelchair lift are use for installing, overhauling and maintaining. Should debug 2 fully to install, generally import one, we will also make a movable falsework, the underpart is equipped with the gyro wheel.
2 Transport and concurrently hoist 2 dollies dolly making a transportation of channel and concurrently hoisting live. Below have four direction wheel. Lift and hang the dolly at 4 o’clock directly.
3 Door type hanger of the activity are make of channel live, is used the tape half a layer of valves packed and hung from the packing box out.
Control of several important indexes in the steam turbine runs
First, monitor the supervision of one section of pressures
In the condensing steam turbine, besides final one, Second Grade, pressure and every Section of governing stage dome release the strength of steam pressure to vary with main steam flow in manner of direct ratio. According to this principle, smoke the strength of steam pressure in operation through monitoring dome the pressure and every Section of governing stage, is it normal to monitor some work of flow-pass effectively. So, usually call section and pressure of the governing stage dome of every steam extraction in order to monitor one section of pressures.
The works has already provided the high-pressure steam turbine under rated load according to heating power and result of calculation of the intensity, steam flow and monitor pressure value of section each, and acceptable the intersection of maximum and steam flow and all monitor one section of pressures. Because each unit each has one’s own characteristic, so even if the steam turbine to the same type, every under the same load monitor sections of either all the same pressure. So, should consult works’ given data for each unit, after installing or overhauling, the flow-pass part is surveyed under the normal conditions, try to get the load, flowrate of the main steam engine and monitor the relation between one section of pressures, regard this as the standard of running to supervise at ordinary times.
If in the same load flowrate Play and monitor a section of pressure lifting, explain this after monitoring section open flow cross-section reduces, form most situation salt dirt,sometimes too can because separate some metal part and damage incidentals mechanical out of shape,etc. after stopping up flow-pass part or the blade. If governing stage and one section of pressures of every steam extraction of high pressure cylinder rise at the same time, it may be that the speed governing air control cable opening of medium voltage is limited. When some heater deactivates, if admission of steam of steam turbine quantity constant, make corresponding the intersection of steam extraction and pressure lifting of piece.
Monitor one section of pressures, not only depend on whether the rising of its absolute value exceeds the specified value, also monitor the differential pressure between every section and exceed the specified value. If the differential pressure of some piece of each has exceeded the specified value, will make the working stress of this grade of baffles and moving blades increase, thus cause the damaged accident of the apparatus.
The steam turbine needs to wash while encrusting, the heater stops to take, determine whether to need to limit the concrete value of a quantity of load and restriction load according to the detailed conditions. Should repair in time when the flow-pass part is damaged, when can’t repair temporarily, the load of limiting the steam turbine properly if necessary that consider too.
Second, control of axial displacement and axle bush temperature
Axial displacement of the turbine rotor. The axial displacement index is used for monitoring operating condition of the thrust bearing. The axial thrust of acting on trochanter is taken on by the thrust bearing, thus guarantee the reliable end play between the aircrew sound part. Axial thrust too big or the intersection of thrust bearing and autogenous work not normal to cause the intersection of thrust and burning loss of pad, bring about the sound part in steam turbine and touch the apparatus rubed and damage the accident.
The steam turbine vapour is warm will produce huge axial thrust at the time of the low or cylinder water inflow, to reheating unit that the high school dashpot fixes up backward, because water happens while lashing the accident, increscent axial thrust is happening in the high pressure cylinder in the twinkling of an eye, namely the axial thrust direction keeps the same with steam flow direction in the high pressure cylinder, so the working face of the thrust tile will bear the huge axial effort.
The intersection of function and direction and middle the intersection of steam and unanimity of flowing into of dashpot of thrust when reheating the vaporized temperature and reducing or hitting the water inflow of dashpot, thrust tile at this moment is not that the working face will bear the huge axial effort. In addition vacuum low or the intersection of flow-pass and part too can make axial thrust change more greatly encrust.
In the aircrew runs, while finding the axial displacement increases, should carry on the complete inspection, listen attentively to the internal sound to the steam turbine, measure the bearing to shake, pay attention to monitoring the pad temperature of strength and change of the oil temperature of going back at the same time, thrust pad Chinese ink of general provision is too normal to allow to exceed 85 ℃ in temperature, the temperature of Chinese ink of the thrust pad exceeds 107 ℃, should shut down resolutely, go back the oil temperature does not allow to exceed 71 ℃, when the temperature exceed specified accepted value, even one bunch of axles is pointed out not big, make it return to normal in conformity with the reduction in load. If one bunch of axles points out and exceeds accepted value, cause it while protecting the switching-off of movement and should require the release of parallel operation of the generator to shut down immediately. As one bunch of axle indicated values exceeds accepted value, and protect while refusing to act, should check, judge conscientiously, should take the emergency shut down measure rapidly when confirming the indicated value is correct.
1,Sum up: The backheating pumpdown system means pipeline and apparatus related to backheating steam extraction of the steam turbine, in vaporized heating power is circulated, usually take some steam out from several pieces of transtage of steam turbine, send to for the water heater to used in the boiler for aqueous heating namely steam extraction backheating system And various factories use vapour,etc.. The main purpose to adopt back to the thermal cycle is: Improve working medium in average temperature of the endothermic process under boiler, in order to improve one grade of heat economy of group.
2,The backheating system of steam extraction acts on: The backheating system of steam extraction is the most fundamental constituent element of heating power system of the sense of principle, adopt the steam heating boiler to lie in reducing the losses of the cold source for the aqueous purpose, have no longer sent out heat to the air in the steam condenser after a certain amount of steam has done some work, namely prevent steaming heat from being taken away by the air, make vaporized heat get sufficient use, the hot good rate dropped, utilized and did the vaporized heated water of some work in the steam turbine at the same time, improve feed water temperature, reduce the intersection of boiler and heated the intersection of Taxi and the intersection of heat transfer and temperature difference, thus reduce heat water irreversible loss in the project, the heat absorption capacity in the boiler reduces correspondingly too. It proves the backheating of steam extraction is to raise the unit and circulate thermal efficiency to synthesize the above reason. So, the normal influence on improving heat economy of the aircrew decisively of putting into operation that the backheating of steam extraction is.
3,Influence the economy ground specification of backheating system of steam extraction: Influence, heat backheating of water economic specification heat, assign, not corresponding and best to feed water temperature and backheating progression for backheating, the close connection between three, mutually have influence.
In the assigned computational analysis of best backheating of solving, ask it to be best and go back for heat distribution with the cycle efficiency maximum value of the thermal cycle of going back of the Z grade ideal, the thermal cycle of going back of what is called ideal, namely assume as the composite heater, it is zero that the end is bad, disregard new steam, release the intersection of steam pressure and decrease and pump work, neglect the heat dissipation loss The ones that tried to get thermal cycle of going back of the ideal are best after the heat distribution formula, according to neglecting some secondary factors, further simplify, can get the best heat distribution formula of going back of other ones that are similar to. If ” the enthalpy lowers the distribution method ” ,The distribution method to rise, fetch, make every enthalpy of heater the intersection of first grade and the intersection of steam and enthalpy in steam turbine in this magnitude lower equal to; And for example ” average distribution method ” ,The enthalpy that the principle of this kind of backheating distribution method is every grade heater rises equally; Still other ” Wait for the enthalpy to lower the distribution method ” When. Can be seen and feed water always heating amount of backheating on condition that it is at certain temperature of feed water and certain progression that the distribution in the units at various levels is, make, it circulates thermal efficiency to be at most principle, therefore correspondent at all levels steam extraction answer thermal parameter, it is the most favorable assigned parameter.
4,The improvement system circulates the thermal efficiency measure: Feed water how much temperature does it heat to, could enable, circulate thermal efficiency to up to the peak value? Take steam extraction backheating of the single stage as examples, feed water at the time of backheating the temperature increases gradually since the steam turbine arrange the saturation temperature of the strength of steam pressure, thermal efficiency increases gradually too, the temperature of feed water when thermal efficiency reaches maximum value is called the best feed water temperature, and then improve and feed water when the heating temperature, thermal efficiency will be reduced instead, heat economy is reduced. This is because feed water after the heating temperature is improved, the corresponding one releases the strength of steam pressure to improve, as to this partial steam extraction, the quantity of the work of thermal change in the steam turbine of per kilogram of steam extraction has been reduced, if electric energy production is constant, should increase and enter new vapor quantity in the steam turbine, by remedying the reduced electric energy production because of steam extraction, it is the higher to smoke the strength of steam pressure, the more increased new vapor quantity is, therefore the bigger the vapour dawdling rate is, the larger the corresponding heat that discharges to the low-temperature heat source is, although the number value that the boiler heats is reducing constantly, the vapour dawdling rate increases very fast, so that make the heat rate rate increase correspondingly, thus enable heat heat efficiency of circulation. In theory, the more heating progression is, the best to feed water the temperature is the higher.
In real application, feed water the temperature does not heat to to feed water best the temperature, also must give overall consideration to technological economy, on one hand, feed water rise of the temperature, make the temperature of exhaust fume rise, the loss of efficiency of the boiler, or need to increase the postlude heating surface of the boiler, make the investment of boiler increase; On the other hand, because backheating makes evaporation capacity and open flowrate of the steam turbine high-pressure end of the boiler increase, and open flowrate and steam flow of the low voltage terminal of the steam turbine are reduced correspondingly, therefore influence the investment of boiler, steam turbine and every relevant subtense angle, dismantle old fee and factory’s electricity consumption in various degree. The temperature that the ones that were relatively confirmed through technical economy are the best to feed water, it is best to be called economy and feed water the temperature.
Climb the summit of international technology of transmission of electricity bravely
Special high-voltage fence refer to, exchange 1000, direct-flow the intersection of ± and 800 and transmission of electricity network of the above. The natural transporting power of power transmission line of 1000 kilovolts is about 4-5 times with power transmission line of 500 kilovolts, there are about 25%-40% of its only in the resistance losses, and can save land resource about 2/3 of circuit corridor, have long distance, high capacity, low loss advantage, can meet the requirements for electricity of national economy better. The special high pressure has already been classified as one of the preferential themes of the national medium and long-term scientific and technological development planning outline.
Although special high pressure has a great deal of advantages, it is an all extremely challenging advanced science and technology within the range of world electric utility industry too. China does not have any available technological experience that is suitable for drawing lessons from before this, the manufacturing field of apparatus is a blank too; Although there is more mature technology abroad, genuine key technology, critical technology can not be bought. The energy resources of once are distributed with economic development serious unbalanced reality, destined in China to need special high pressure. At the end of 2004, the national electric wire netting company put forward the strategic idea of developing special high-voltage fence. From that time, leader and experts of the national electric wire netting company begin to race, haggle with the hardship of the challenge battle with time once.
The requirements for accuracy and safety in designing and making of the special high voltage equipment far exceed the conventional equipment, its difficulty is praised as Mount Qomolangma of the apparatus manufacturing field of international electrician. And not formed the commercialization of the special high voltage equipment and supplied ability in the world, there are no specially high-pressure technical standard and norm even more. China develops special high pressure, can only start from scratch, totally depend on autonomous innovation, research and development and manufacture of the specially high-pressure power transmission and transforming equipment can only depend on finishing by oneself. National the intersection of electric wire netting and Company choose one full of thistles and thorns, climb international the intersection of technology of transmission of electricity and Luis of innovation of summit while being brave.
“The world scientific and technological difficult problem of electric wire netting is in China, the motive force innovated is in China too. ” National the intersection of electric wire netting and Liu Zhenya, general manager of Company, cooperation over to state so in different field, face special the intersection of high pressure and one this, lead world transmit electricity the intersection of technical progress and enormous technological challenge that project faces of direction already, ” develops and specially transmits electricity under high pressure, there is no obstacle different to overcome technically in the electric wire netting company of prominent country again, have already possessed the condition of real application on the project ” Confidence and spirit.
China Power science and technology captures the commanding point of the world
Since the project of specially transmitting electricity under high pressure is started at the end of 2004, the national electric wire netting company has promoted the research of 321 items of specially high-pressure critical technology systematically in an all-round way, in the voltage standard, electromagnetic environment, over voltage and insulation co-ordination, reactive voltage control, respects such as technology, high-altitude, heavy ice region, heavy filth, converting station, circuit design, specially high-pressure construction technique, great electric wire netting operating control of lightning protection,etc. are obtained and broken through in an all-round way. Have built and specially exchanged proving ground, direct-flow proving grounds, proving grounds of the pole tower, high-altitude proving grounds of Tibet, artificial centres of national electric wire netting under high pressure, have formed the strongest, most high specially high-pressure experimental study system of engineering level of testing ability in the world at present, 28 items of experiment ability and index have created the first in the world.
Studying forms a series of specially high-pressure technical standard, set up the specially high-pressure project design and operation which has improved the complete set and run to maintain the technical regulation system. At present, the national electric wire netting company has already sent Butt and exchanged 16 national standards revise one under high pressure , 1 sector standard, 73 items enterprise’s standards, specially exchange the experimental demonstration project to obtain ” the canonicalization of national great project is demonstrated ” under high pressure Title; Take the lead in setting up the technological standard system of special high voltage direct current, send 8 items, 62 enterprise’s standards technological sector standards of Butt’s high voltage direct current, set up 25 establishment country, trades and international standards, impel International Electrotechnical Commission to become ” above 100kV high voltage direct current transmission of the direct-current volts ” New technical committee, and set up the secretariat in China.
Meanwhile, under the energetical support of country, the national electric wire netting company adheres to the kernel object of autonomous innovation, insist on revitalizing China of the national equipment manufacture and producing the policy of melting, relies on engineering construction, dominate the apparatus and develop the MIDI in an all-round way, fully transfer various resources and strength, make up the most top Committee of Experts of China, scientific research, design, makes, tests, construction, run unit and university’s constituent constant state apparatus development system, have broken owners and technological barrier between the producer, producer and producer, innovation more deep foundation, more high platform.
At 22 on January 6 of 2009, the project of specially transmitting electricity under high pressure first by concerned China – –The Jin Dynasty southeast – Nanyang – the intersection of Jingmen and 1000 kilovolts exchange the experimental demonstration project and pass commissioning for 168 hours smoothly under high pressure, commissioninged formally. The operating voltage is the highest in this world, delivery value maximum, representing the highest technology is lateral to specially exchange the project of transmitting and converting electricity to turn from blueprint into reality under high pressure, cause the worldwide extensive response, ” the first in the world ” of project agglomeration It is many, unprecedented. This is vertical to step 640 kilometers of silvery huge dragons of three provinces in Hubei Province of Henan Province of the Jin Dynasty, is confirming the strong independent innovation ability day by day in China, declare China publicly in the large brilliance future that crosses over of electric power development.
” followers ” Have turned into ” Lead the runner ”
“The whole southeast – specially high-pressure demonstration project China of Nanyang – Jingmen of the Jin Dynasty produces and melts rate above 90%, have complete independent intellectual property rights. In all apparatuses that ‘ three station Line two ‘ adopt of its, can not see the foreign trade mark, none of complete machines are imported. ” On January 16 of 2009, the national electric wire netting company’s Vice President prints the young tiger to talk easily at the news briefing of putting into operation of the project in this way. This words electrify the listeners with what said.
When the project is set up ” The apparatus China produces and melts ” Commitment fulfilling satisfactorily,by national to be that equipment manufacture succeed in developing for representative world complete sets laterals highest last apparatus under high pressure specially, the index is excellent, the characteristic is steady, prove and operate examining through the overall strict test, have created large quantities of world records. Specially exchange and test the engineering equipment of demonstration under high pressure and is all based on China’s supplying, offer the broad space of market for Chinese manufacturing company, impel the specially high-pressure technology of transmission of electricity in China to develop at full speed.
Specially like the huge support platform under high pressure, not merely let the relevant enterprise of China take-off rapidly, rise to a new level, and in order that ” China creates ” Have gained the chance. Has known the Chinese power transmission and transforming equipment enterprises of the right of technological words, since ” introducing ” Change into ” Walk out ” . In 2010, Chinese enterprises will succeed in getting the specially high-pressure power transmission and transforming equipment procurement contract that the national electric wire netting Company of India exceeds 100 million dollars, to the advanced products of specially high-pressure power transmission and transformation of batch export of foreign countries for the first time.
Will it be July 8 2010, China independent research, design and build put into operation to 800 the intersection of high voltage direct current transmission and demonstration project, dam of house and ± of Shanghai. This to transport the intersection of capacity and maximum, give electrical distance endmost, the intersection of engineering level and most advanced, most high direct-current transmission project of voltage class in the world, indicate national electric wire netting enter specially high-pressure alternating and direct current to mix the era of the electric wire netting in an all-round way.
From 2004 to 2010, China specially transmits electricity from nonexistence to existence under high pressure, build up in succession from proposing imagining, scientific appraisal to projects, and dispose and contribute trans-regionally for energy resources, has realized and broken through in an all-round way. The specially high-pressure project made China specially transmit electricity in the field under high pressure to take the lead in realizing ” China creates ” And ” China cranes one’s neck to look into the distance ” ,Rely on specially high-pressure research of technique and engineering construction to practise, China has already mastered key technology of specially transmitting electricity under high pressure, form 47 national standard, 96 patent for invention, become world transmit electricity technical ” leads runners ” under high pressure specially ,The specially high-pressure standard defined by China has already become the international standard.
China grasp key technology that special high voltage equipment make already, succeed in, develop until world highest to specially exchange a complete set of equipment and direct-flow key equipment under high pressure while being lateral, create batch world record, form the operational capacities of the batch, has promoted Chinese electrician’s equipment manufacture to march toward the international advanced ranks. On international technology of transmission of electricity and apparatus manufacturing field, by the past ” followers ” Have turned into ” Lead the runner ” .
It is fine in the afternoon that ladies and gentlemen, the topic that I speak is to ” specially exchange the technological innovation and practise under high pressure ” . Mainly described by five following respects, a common question that everybody knows the whole sphere faces is to develop, the environment, resource and security. This is a same question to power industry, this question may be stressed a little to China, our water and electricity, wind-powered electricity, the coal and electricity is in the west and the north, power consumption is in Middle Eastern Department area. It is 300 million kilowatts that the mere water and electricity are sent from the west, our electricity to be transported from west to the east is very huge from the development of the situations of long-term these.
The special high pressure is the high capacity, the long-range, low loss, represent the engineering level of current high pressure, can realize the optimizing configuration of the maximum extent while adopting the special high pressure, set up more extensive market, Europe is making this too.
In the 7th of last century, the former Soviet Union, U.S.A. of the eighties, Italy and Japan waited for launching the research of the special high pressure in succession, according to the needs of technical development and China’s actual conditions, we must take the road to independent development. What is the technological characteristic and requiring of the special high pressure in China? Some is the technology of the generality, the characteristic of specially high-pressure maximum is that the environmental protection is expected much, the transmission distance is long.
The voltage is controlled within the range of suring high, guarantee he can run under the upper voltage, do not turn out too high to make under some situations of the voltage in special circumstances, the middle have question of transportation, we hope local control very good, wait a moment for these technology, interweave together. This is that a professional interweave is together, the technology is conditional, restrict each other, influence each other. The specially high-pressure project has a very urgent need for China at the same time, because first the intersection of economy and high-speed development of China make our electric power development quickly, need high capacity, the technology of transmitting electricity far.
Second, distant technology can use, in order to avoid repetitional investment. Much work is to interweave together under such a situation. To say that will take shape and is suitable for China’s security’s purpose, the requirement for environment protection, economy is required, require sincerely, and China produces and melts and demands to specially design under high pressure, device fabrication, independent innovation ability of technical regulation, here have one any important suitable for the Chinese national conditions very then, been trying to extend to 3000 meters above the sea level, even more high place from the coast land that has an elevation of dozens of meters, different structural questions of geology, this is a question.
Second, want suitable China to produce the requirement for melting. We want the application of scale, this is that it is made by oneself that we really realize.
On working foundation outside previous China, the national electric wire netting company listened to the opinions and suggestions of various fields conscientiously in 2004, especially different suggestions, unite the organizations and advisory organizations of a plurality of trades in China, eight institutions of higher learning and over 100 apparatuses company, Lu YanChang is the group leader of this expert panel, having launched research and demonstration of the special high pressure, we have arranged 321 subjects altogether, have finished 180 items up till now. This is a subject of finishing 180 items! Because there are many in this scientific research that is some technical break-throughs of nowadays transmitting electricity under high pressure, it is question needing to innovate or a problem with very great challenge, it is theoretical research to adopt one inside, when doing this project, we built four research base at the same time, a research center, it has introductions that this will be relevant behind, strengthen the theoretical research, computational analysis, much high-pressure technology of transmission of electricity is a experiment very strong technology, carry on experimental verification, make overall plans and coordinate, science decision, advance every research work solidly.
The unit participated in has over 100 units such as scientific research, design, making, constructing, running, university, it is the main fact that our company of this is directly subordinate to the R
Saudi Arabia is devoted to the development of the nuclear energy and solar energy Time: [2011-03-31 ]Information source: Nuclear power daily report network The number of visits: Time
If oil gas consumption continues keeping the present growth situation, Saudi Arabia will pay attention to the development of the nuclear energy and solar energy further, because over the next 20 years, Saudi Arabian the majority of petroleum will be used in meeting China’s demand, only drib is used for exporting.
King Abdullah’s atomic energy and renewable energy resource city King Abdallah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy In charge of Hashim Yamani and claim recently, as one of the master petroleum supply countries of the world, by 2028, in order to meet China’s demand, Saudi Arabia’s daily petroleum consumption is up to 8 million barrels, keeps an equal pace with present oil yield.
Saudi Arabia and some other the Persian Gulf Persian Gulfs Perimetral Arab countries, launch one the intersection of kernel and plan to store in dispute already. This plan aims at meeting the electric demand of this country annual growth about 8%. Meanwhile, desalinization increases at the speed of 8% for every year too.
Though these countries have bulky oil gas to store, in fact, with population growth, economic expansion and growth of energy-consuming, almost all the capitals of Arab countries face the problem of the natural gas in short.
The oil gas of producing country of petroleum stores and uses up to the limit day by day, can only keep up with the paces of the electric demand. According to Riyadh Riyadh The data which the municipal government announces, by 2032, the demand of this country will increase by 3 times, namely 121,000 megawatts.
The establishment of King Abdullah atom city aims at developing nuclear power technology, improve the electric energy production during the following ten years, in order to keep the petroleum of a large amount of of this countries exporting. The technical development of nuclear power is a constituent element of electric investment project of 80 billion dollars.
Riyadh received American and tender about scheme feasibility research of kernel of British engineering company separately in October, this tender will confirm the site of factory of construction of the nuclear power station and build the diplomatic influence of the nuclear power station.
Last summer, U.S.A. continued the group U.S. Shaw Group And Japanese Toshiba group Japan’s Toshiba Group Announce, both sides have already established partnership relation, are devoted to the development of the Saudi Arabian nuclear power project together.
The Saudi Arabian government agrees to sign with France on July 5 ” The peace enables kernel to develop ” Cooperative agreement. Although has not announced the details of this agreement, has not had the signature time that any sign shows the formal agreement, but according to Saudi Arabia’s present busy situation, it is within sight to sign formally.
Wicky’s compromise network Wikileaks Reveal American the State Council of China U.S. State Department Secret for telegram,U.S.A. is Embassy of in Riyadh warn by Washington government on the question of petroleum production of Saudi Arabia at September 2007.
A telegram claims, the rapid rise of the electric demand will possibly restrain the petroleum of Saudi Arabia from exporting. ” Because population and economic growth, the electric demand estimates that will increase at 10% of the speeds of every year in the following ten years, ” Write in the telegram, ” In view of this, by 2018, the generating capacity of Saudi Arabia needs doubling, namely possess generating capacity of 68000 megawatt ”
These telegrams show plain, the core of this crisis lies in, if global oil supply is threatened, whether are there maintenance prices to stabilize
Nuclear accident the intersection of shade and lower Turkish continue, advance the intersection of nuclear energy and development plan Time: [2011-03-31 ]Information source: The New York Times The number of visits: Time
Istanbul —-Last weekend, Sri Lankan of Iraq of Istanbul carried one carat of streets Istiklal Avenue Have, thousands of hold high and advance strenuously in the bustling with activity stream of people of shopping against the demonstration of kernel slogans person. In order to let more people hear their voice, the protestor beats a drum to shout ” Object to building the nuclear power station ” . However, few people stop and listen attentively to their slogan in the crowded crowd.
After the accident happened in Fukushima first nuclear power station of Japan, the nuclear energy policies of all parts change one after another, but China of Turkey surges another whiff of trend
Scales of investment of domain such as the global solar energy,etc. will reach 243 billion dollars in 2010 Time: [2011-03-31 ]Information source: Chinese broadcast network The number of visits: Time
According to economic ” morning newspaper of finance and economics ” of sound, a report released on the 29th reveals, the scales of investment of global wind energy, solar energy and other regenerated energy fields will reach the competence of setting a record of 243 billion dollars in 2010.
According to the report, the public and private scale of investment of the clean energy field increase by 30% compared with 2009 in 2010. This report has also followed the trail of the investment situation of biofuel, energy efficiency and other regenerated energy fields, but not charged to the investment of nuclear energy and natural gas field.
The report claims, excluding researching and developing the project, the total scale of investment in the field of clean energy will be 198 billion dollars in two Group of Ten 2010.
What merits attention is, the investment in the field of clean energy will be 54,400 million dollars in 2010 in China, the scale occupies the first place in various countries, 45 billion dollars among them have been put into wind-powered electricity project. Germany that occupies the second place invests 41,200 million dollars, 36,100 million dollars among them have entered solar energy field. In the past two years, the scales of investment of these two countries exceeded U.S.A..
On the other hand, U.S.A. will invest 34 billion dollars in this field in 2010, will occupy the third place, among them about halves invest wind-powered electricity field, about 30% invest the solar energy field. This report points out, in the past five years, the increase volumn of investment of clean energy that there were 10 countries in G 10 was greater than U.S.A..
The Russian energy minister shows: Russia plans to accelerate the development of the nuclear power industry Time: [2011-03-31 ]Information source: Department of Commerce The number of visits: Time
Offer the report according to Russia, Russian energy minister assorted Matt department shows, though the Japanese violent earthquake causes the crisis of kernel of Fukushima to the outside, various countries check security and discretion of nuclear power station and treat the nuclear power development plan one after another, but Russia will not only continue developing the nuclear power industry but also speed up the steps of developing. Russia continue, carry out set policy, nuclear power in to account for than bring up to 20-25% electric field.
Put forth effort to develop new energy in Central America Time: [2011-03-31 ]Information source: People’s Daily The number of visits: Time
The energy strategy of the countries all over the world faces the double pressures of high enterprise of the oil price and carbon emission reduction. In various countries of Central America, this kind of pressure is developing into motive force. Seeking and developing the pluralistic alternative energy source already becomes the important constituent element of energy strategy of all countries of Central America: Nicaragua plans to realize all energies use the regenerated energy by 2016; Costa Rica is trying to become the neutral country of carbon in 2021; The government of Guatemala strives by 2022, satisfiable 60% of the energy demands of China of water and electricity and geothermol power; Salvador is studying the regenerated energy laws and regulations from all parts of the world, applicable to one’s own law,etc. by confirming.
As early as a few years ago, the achievement in the field of new energy of various countries of Central America can be enclosed and can be clicked. Latin America and data display that Caribbean Sea announce by economic commission, Central America country utilize renewable electricity of energy-producing account for 61% of gross generation their already in 2009, among them the water and electricity are protagonists. Costa Rica is in leading position in six countries of Central America, 90% of electricity used at present come from the regenerated energy. Only according to energy structure, Central America all country walk already in numerous ” The low carbon ” National forefront.
The outstanding achievement which Central America country makes in the field of new energy, depend on on one hand that realizes restriction and advantage of the objective factor early, on the other hand even benefit from attention and push of the government.
It has been bottlenecks of economic development of all countries of Central America all the time that the petroleum resources are deficient, and influence people’s life. Costa Rica imports about 3 million tons of petroleum every year, Guatemala can only produce the petroleum of drib, need to cost 2 billion dollars to import every year. The petroleum of import has increased the economic running cost, has become too that influences the hidden danger of the energy security of various countries. Realize the pluralism of energy structure, reduce the reliance on the petroleum to become the inevitable choice of all countries of Central America as much as possible. The regenerated energy of all countries of Central America is contained abundantly. According to the figure that the electric committee of Central America announced, the water and electricity reserves in Central America area are 22,000 megawatts, have only developed 17% at present. Geothermol power energy of Costa Rica and Guatemala is 800 megawatts and 1000 megawatts respectively.
Because of clearly knowing to one’s own resource advantages and energy development trends in the future, the governments of various countries of Central America make policy and planning one after another, develops and utilizes new energy in line with the local conditions. New energy bill of making 2004 in Guatemala, gives deductions and exemptions of taxes to the renewable energy-producing favourably. Salvador is through ” promotes the finance of new energy to stimulate the bill ” in 2007, encourage using the regenerated energy. Costa Rica implements tax allowance to mixed motive force and electric automobile, and is studying and promoting project legislation and technological mechanism of new energy.
A series of policy, finance and technical support about promoting new energy utilization, have brought the generous repayment to all countries of Central America. From 2009 to 2010, the wind power generation of Central America country increases by 120%. Among them, it is 49.5 megawatts that melon that Caster of Costa Rica saves a newly-built installed capacity of power plant of wind-force, can supply with the electricity consumption of 60,000 families, the wind power generation of this country has increased by 75%. A Spanish coalition of companies built a wind electric field whose installed capacity is 102 megawatts in Honduras last year, the electric field of this wind will be run since 2012, satisfiable 6% of the electric demands of Honduras when the time comes, become the wind-powered electricity facilities of maximum of Central America.
Development and use of new energy are nowadays various countries in the focus of wrestling economically and technically, also make the chip of commanding point of strategy in the international community. More clean energy, the life style in environment protecting mode, it is each earth citizen’s hope and responsibility. All countries of Central America fully utilize the autogenous advantage, has shown a good image to world on the road to sustainable development, also offered the new visual angle for launching more extensive exchange and cooperation in the field of new energy in various countries.