About 1 PCTran/AP1000
PCTran/AP1000 is U.S.A. Micro-Simulation Technology MST Small-scale software of simulation emulation and serious crash analysis can be suitable for AP1000 hydropower station which the company developed in 1985. It is that one kind can be through to the reactor transient state and simulation software that the accident is paid and controlled on the personal computer. PCTran mainly adopts FORTRAN language to compile in early period, because of the popularization of Windows window platform of Microsoft later, so rewrite into the edition of the window. It only has several pieces of simple analysis module that it is early, operate interfaces too only in order to export briefly. Increased many and analyzed the module successively later, operated the figure user’s interface GUI that interfaces grew from early and simple DOS interface to present Windows too . Born so far, MST Company developed many editions of PCTran software which is suitable for different piling types. Adopt changing the intersection of Model U and evaporimeter, pigeonholing water, piling personning who pile ripe mostly because of the intersection of China and active service and in the nuclear power station that prepare to establish, so mainly introduce and canvass simulation and analysis of contingency that PCTran/AP1000 software may happen to the nuclear power station here, thus get faster and rationaller prediction to accident, can also be regarded as the reference of assessing crash analysis of nuclear power station,
Shortcoming and deficiency of 2 PCTran/AP1000 software
It is unable to imitate the evaporimeter to supply water the pipeline breaks the accident, can’t reflect the dynamic response when the evaporimeter is receiving great impulse correctly, can’t regulate etc. when it is real to carry on the parameter in the course of running; The systematic expansibility is another important index of the software design. A good software system, not merely can realize and design the function ordered for the first time, also need to reserve in but the expansion leeway for the realization of other functions to be certain. Because PCTran adopts inside to encapsulate to data and module, makes it unable to visit to the data directly from the outside, so the expansibility of PCTran is not outstanding. Meanwhile, because PCTran has not adopted the module to design, brought the difficulty for the expansion with perfect function of the system; The present PCTran software can only run on the unit, the parameters of all initial operating mode parameter and trouble simulation are set up by users, unfavorable to training users to judge the trouble reason and ability to adopt countermeasure by oneself.
To the above insufficient improvement: Because Some is the inherent shortcoming of PCTran/AP1000 software, we are unable to change their internal parameters, improve the scheme in this one to the third, namely it is trained that PCTran/AP1000 is distributed the systematic design.
The main function of this software is: Can be by the coach train the teacher Is chosen the trouble type or parameter of running initially and sends to the end of client on the end of server, after the end procedure of the client receives the data from backstage supporter, start PCTran/AP1000 artificial software of nuclear power station, the transient state data of every operation operating mode will change correspondingly, the students of the end of client receive a start-up On condition that know the trouble type in advance, want the change of the transient state data and various variation tendency pictures according to running to carry on accident analysis and judge trouble type, and adopt and reset the corresponding operation parameter in order to achieve the goal of fixing a breakdown.
The coach can supervise and watch students’ operation, and for guidance and comment on. In the intersection of LAN and environment, 1 server should at least can lead 50 client, in order to meet need that train.
3 systematic functions are designed and describe
The main function of this software is: By the coach train the teacher first Turn on the end of server and control the procedure, students are in the end log-in system of the client, the coach can see the information name, student’s serial number and IP address of student who has already logged in on the end of server . The coach is chosen the trouble type or parameter of running initially and sends to students’ client end through the network on the end of server, on the end of client Cheng started the local PCTran/AP1000 artificial software of nuclear power station after receiving data from server, PCTran runs according to coach’s appointed initial terms and trouble type, the transient state data of every operation will change correspondingly on the interface, students want the change of the transient state data and various variation tendency pictures according to running to carry on accident analysis and judge trouble type, and adopt and reset the corresponding operation parameter in order to achieve the goal of fixing a breakdown.
3.1 The server end module is designed
3.2 The client end module is designed
The main function of the client end module is: The parameter is set up. Can set up user address, so that the intersection of end and slogan, IP of server, go on the intersection of the network and communication with the intersection of client and end, can set up the route of the database file, in order to set up parameters such as initial terms data and trouble type,etc. in the database of PCTran in advance. Log-in server. Students click after inputting one’s own name, student’s serial number in the log-in interface ” Log-in ” The key, can send name, student’s serial number and client IP address data to the server together. Trouble type and initial condition are received and operated PCTran. including trouble type, initial condition after receiving the operation parameter message from the end of server ,Brief on PCTran procedure whether students begin to run on this plane, the system sets up parameters such as initial terms data and trouble type,etc. in the database of this machine PCTran automatically first after students confirm, then start PCTran simulation nuclear power station to operate automatically.
The simulation emulation and serious crash analysis of nuclear power station are one of the important directions in which the nuclear power studies, the development based on artificial software of simulation of nuclear power station of the ordinary computer receives the extensive concern of the whole world. This text regards PCTran as the model, has carried on analysis and research to the artificial software of AP1000 nuclear power station simulation used for PC, and enough to design, develop one set distributed to train system and carry on debugging of LAN under the environment to system this to PCTran.
Because time is limited, originally training has some places not so complete systematically, can also further improve stability of the system and increase a little more relevant functions later, for instance: Students are trained record of the data,etc. record to the time, trouble type and initial terms, student that every student train the situation of scoring .
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1 ” The going forward one by one type ” Intension and characteristic of the experiment
” The going forward one by one type ” The experiment means from the basic experiment to the comprehensive experiment, and the order of the innovative experiment carries on the experiment. According to electrical engineering and train objective and requirement specialized in automation, passed the adjustment of the structure of the laboratory, on the foundation of the single laboratory of single course originally, exactly formate three major module, divide this professional laboratory into three levels: Basic experiment, it is the laboratory integration that this professional basic course once is corresponding, meet the need that every course experiment teaches; The synthesizing experiment, it is an experiment project that is not limited to some single course, through integration and adjustment of the structure of the laboratory, set up the laboratory where course is relevant in a comprehensive laboratory, support to open the experiment project of using several courses synthetically, this has already helped to improve students and use the ability of knowledge synthetically, design for course at the same time and graduation project has been offered a platform; Innovation type experiment, it is according to the characteristic of this professional train objective, set up the exploration laboratory of combination involving production,teaching,research. Under the guidance of innovative experiment instruct teacher, in the fields of one’s own research or discipline direction which Mr. selects, study the direction to a certain subject or a certain, carry on research and experiment explored, it is students that participate in scientific research, a kind of important form that teaching scientific research combines together.
2 ” The going forward one by one type ” Exploration and practising of the experiment mode
The professional laboratory of the electrical engineering is the laboratory that an institute builds earlier, in reform in education and practice for many years, the teaching of experiment has been that the school has carried on the focal point of the reform all the time. Over the past six years, according to the basic principle, the foundation is employed, comprehensive practice, employs and designs four levels to plan and improve the experiment conditioning; Upgrade the teaching idea by combining the content of courses, improving the teaching method; Guarantee the reform of teaching of experiment by strengthening and managing, training team’s quality.
2.1 Combine professional experiment teaching facilities and combine the content of courses of the experiment around the electrical engineering and train objective of the talents specialized in automation, institute’s electrical engineering and automation speciality have been since one rises, according to the needs of social personnel training, have offered ” The power system and automizing ” Sum ” The industrial automation ” Two professional directions, according to the requirement integration in two professional directions during reform and construction in the laboratory. Experiment project, course design and graduation project that were opened according to course originally, exactly combine into basic experiment, comprehensive experiment which stresses application ability which reflect the course system and train the design experiment of innovative talents and explore the studying scientific research project, have taken shape ” The basic experiment – comprehensive experiment – innovative experiment ” The experiment teaching system that three levels go forward one by one, has emphasized systematicness and science that student’s ability trains. In concrete operation, the basic courses of two professional directions are the same, so, have set up a unified basic experiment platform and professional comprehensive experiment platform, so can meet demands of two professional direction experiment teaching at the same time, purpose to get up resource-sharing. The construction of the professional direction experiment platform, it is according to the needs of two professional directions in which this speciality offer, set up the special laboratory, it is with generating electricity, distribution and experiment teaching base where the automation controls as the goal that power system and professional experiment of the automation are divided into the room, it is the base of teaching of experiment taking course automation control of industrial production as goal that the industrial automation experiment divides the room.
Set up two relatively independent laboratories, it is not merely the needs of two professional directions and personnel training at present, the development that also two professional directions in the future has offered the favorable guarantee, favorable to the development in the future of two professional directions.
2.2 Combine the content of courses of the experiment, improve the teaching method of the experiment according to electric Cheng of the institute and requirement that professional teaching of automation plans, tested state and existing problem of teaching originally to the institute, science combined the content of courses of the experiment, and is canvassing and improving the teaching method of the experiment constantly. On the content of courses, makeover the state that single course offered the single experiment originally, carry on the content of courses ” The going forward one by one type ” Integration.
On the teaching method, changed and taught and demonstrated for the teaching method of the main fact with the teacher in the past, operation ability and innovative thinking of taking the way to lead and inspire to train students. Make technological guidance as to basic the intersection of experiment and Mr., set up teaching method that rely mainly on student as to comprehensive, design and the intersection of research and exploratory the intersection of experiment and project. As to the comprehensive and innovative experiment, students need to fill in project application subject source, subject experiment terms, method to plan to take, anticipated experiment result studying the purpose, possessing ,Make students many in the angle, think diversifiedly, train students to carry on the ability of scientific research, train students to use the knowledge analysis and ability to solve practical problem of the project studied. Meanwhile, teach students in accordance with their aptitude according to the level of student’s manipulative ability, strengthen course, control, through student check, the intersection of teacher and middle period inspection, submit, form the intersection of question and report and go on, form the intersection of question and the intersection of person who reply and form, strengthen the management of all experiment course, so, have realized well ” The going forward one by one type ” The anticipated result of the experiment, has met the need of personnel training of the different levels too.
2.3 Strengthen the teaching management of the experiment Electrical engineering and automatic speciality ” The going forward one by one type ” There must be complete management system and control measures to guarantee in the implementation of the teaching mode of the experiment. In the concrete practice, exchange and study of the management system of teaching through and other university experiments, and then make a set of effectual management systems according to the actual conditions of the institute, setting up reflecting, the experiment teaching of student’s experiment ability and innovation ability comments on the system, open the laboratory with condition, realize ” The going forward one by one type ” The going on in order of teaching of experiment.
2.4 Strengthen the important factor that teachers’ building of contingent of teachers’ building of contingent is construction of laboratory, it is prerequisite and condition of guaranteeing teaching of practice. In recent years, improve the quality of the experiment team by introducing and training two kinds of methods. Go on, improve from education first to the intersection of experiment and team, adopt, send teacher get the intersection of factory and enterprise go on form of training and studying etc. come on, raise the intersection of experiment and skill, strengthen the building of contingent. It is up to standard to realize on the education, age composition, student’s structure and professional title structure are rational, the experiment group that the experiment skill promoted, make each one instruct the teacher how to possess the ability to coach two experiment courses. In addition, the school will also work to appraise and choose excellent in the laboratory, the laboratory is built respects such as calculating, staff member’s professional title promotion of the laboratory, treatment of work load,etc. take some measures which stabilize the team, outstanding experiment teaching talents ” Let into, can leave, use well ” .
Electrical engineering and automatic speciality are here ” The going forward one by one type ” In the reform in education of the experiment, train for the goal with the speciality, has formed the scientific experiment teaching system through combining the content; Through optimizing the allocation of resources, form basic experiment platform, professional comprehensive experiment platform and professional direction experiment platform; Through improving the teaching method, has trained students’ innovation ability; Pass and improve and manage, having set up advanced experiment operational mode, thus make students’ manipulative ability and innovative consciousness obviously improved, university student’s employment rate is more than 98%, is well received by employing unit. It practises teaching to be one item long-term project of system, need, can improve in constant exploration and practice also.
Xia JinBing. Mechanism’s professional new experiment teaching system is visited [J ] for the first time under the open laboratory condition. Experimental technique and management, 2003, 204 : 95-97.
Gao Song. Research and innovation [J ] of laboratory construction of demonstration of Hunan Province. Electric electronic teaching journal, 20036 .
Xu Zhong. Regard implementing the course standard of the experiment as the opportunity and promote the reform in education of the experiment [J ] in a more cost-effective manner. Teaching of laboratory, 20061 .
First, content with automatic distribution
The automation of the distribution network is electric application technology, in order to deal with new technology that tense situation of electric energy,etc. adopts in recent years. The intersection of it and low-voltage electric wire netting involve mainly, function target whether electricity deal in the intersection of power consuming and enterprise.
It is distribution line and corresponding apparatus that the distribution network is not merely simple in automation, it also includes communication, computer integrated application, electricity load Controlling, energy-conservation, electric wire netting stipulations,etc.. Summing up has the following several respects:
1.Safe and reliable power supply network: Including power order should guarantee electricity transport economical operation of circuit, the intersection of switch and the intersection of voltage transformer,etc. and dependability of facility.
2.The automatic judgement and isolating to the trouble: Resume power supply in the non- trouble circuit under the manpower or automatic condition, isolate and diagnose oneself to the trouble point.
3.Judge the systematic operation conditions are controlled in real time: Deal with the information that the distribution network needs, spread to sending on various information, reflect the treatment analytical capacity of operation conditions and accident in time.
4.Management for power consuming: Include the intersection of user and management expectancy in electric energy, manage opinion,etc., want, react get the intersection of distribution and centre in time, reacted and dealt with to this by the administrative center of the distribution.
Second, meaning that distribution automation employs in the enterprises at county level
Pressure of best use, relieving and supplying power to the electric energy in China of distribution automation, and better offering electricity service etc. all have important meanings. Implement distribution automation in the power supply enterprise at county level, the meaning that has has the following several points:
1.Help to propose one grade of management levels of power supply enterprise in Gao County, too improve the effective way of its economic benefits at the same time. Automatic operation mode, through the control to the distribution network, can lighten the work load operated in floodgate upside down effectively, improve overall labour productivity and security.
2.Help to improve power supply capacity, open up the electric market constantly. Implement distribution automation, can judge the position of trouble correctly, isolate the trouble automatically, resume supplying power automatically, reduce trouble losses to minimum extent, has improved security and dependability of the electric wire netting greatly, having raised the efficiency of crash handling, thus promote power supply capacity and win consumer’s favorable comment.
3.Help to improve power supply quality. Implement distribution automation, has reduced energy lossing and power supply risk, has improved power supply reliability, help to improve power supply quality.
Third, design principle and function of the distribution automated system scheme are required
1 System designs at the main website
1.Design philosophy: Systematic design philosophy should adhere to level and module at the main website.
The level is to divide software into two levels: The basic platform storey and employs the floor of the module, make the function expand and only increase and revise the module of function with the modification without changing as the central basic platform floor, thus improve dependability and expandability of the system.
The module means the system carries on the module above the basic platform functionally as much as possible, make function but convenient increase, modification and reduce the number of in order to adapt to different scales of investment.
2.The structural design of the network: The structural design of the network is divided into a hardware and the software.
Should be designed one pair of networks to be balanced on the hardware, the mode shunted and both as and used, in order to increase the dependability with wide and communication.
Design to be C/S mode and B/S mode on the software. It is that the operation management and work station maintained adopt C/S mode completely to be all, can authorize and control and revise all kinds of databases; The work station belonging to the properties of only having a look around inquiring adopts B/S mode completely, the work station only uses IE browser, can visit all kinds of automatic data of distribution and picture, but can’t revise. Have so not only lighten the automatic systematic network of main website of the distribution to bear but also raised the systematic data security of main website, have expanded systematic network coverage of main website to the maximum extent.
3.In addition, system should leave the interface with other automated systems at the main website, in order to realize the information sharing, dispel various automatic information detached islands.
2 Terminal design of sub station
The son stands the terminal station demands to adopt one grade of chips of industry, especially FTU on the column on the hardware, thus meet industrial temperature requirements and low consumption requirements. Because FTU should consider the open air seal, there may not be heat-dissipating hole. Moreover it is very important too that anti-interference is designed, especially FTU, it is just by the switch on the column, hang on the pole again, easiest to interfere with by the external world, require that takes and resists and disturbs the measure to the input, input of signal, output return circuit of the power, for instance well up and inhibit the static from shielding unrestrainedly, one group of ~s methods of inhibiting etc. of pulse. There are corresponding interference-free algorithms too on the software.
3 Conceptual design of communication
The system adopts GPRS wireless communication way, it is expensive to solve the wireless communication equipment in the past, the disadvantage with bad dependability, offer the two-way reliable real-time channel. Cooperate with the terminal device of distant place, realize it to the control of the situation of operating of any apparatus in the distribution network. Meanwhile, GPRS communication transmitted through moving the existing wireless network, does not need to lay the communication line extraly, have reduced the operating expenses; And cover widely and widely, the operation cost is very low, can adapt to the complicated real state.
1.Communication content: Including the long-range movements remote control of controlling the switch ,Such as shut the floodgate, assign to floodgate,etc.; Long-range working state telesignalling of inquiring about the switch ,If electricity / non-electric power, left supply power / supply power etc. in right forward; Inquire about the operation parameter telemetering measurement at present moment ,Whole definite value, calling the police, counting value substantially as turning on or off,etc..
2.Communication way: The real-time mode can be uploaded in real time according to users’ settlement, the minimum interval is 1s, the real-time character is strong, but communication is large in flow, the operating cost is high. Users can presume that upload the interval fixedly when intelligence uploads the mode, the wheel asks the cycle of the controller, when the controller produces SoE or telesignalling to shift, the communication card uploads the item automatically; All communication parameters can be by revising long-rangely.
Fourth, conclude the speech
Fast development and huge consumption crowd of China’s economy, make the electric power resource of China supply and serve and face the serious challenge during a relatively long time slot. Distribution automation has broad prospects as a new kind of application technology. In term of distribution automation at county level, it can improve power supply quality and service quality effectively, lower and reduce the risk, have good social benefit and economic benefits, there will be larger space of development and application. But at the same time, we should make great efforts to improve automatic understanding to distribution, innovating constantly, improve to a new height the automatic technology of the distribution, the better one serves society and the people.
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QingDong Feng, for the people mao. The automatic technology of the distribution network and instance analysis of the project [M ]. China Electric Power Publishing House, 2007.
Chen Tang, Zhao ZuKang, Chen XingYing, Hu DaLiang. Distribution system and automatic technology [M ]. China Electric Power Publishing House, 2006.
Because the impracticable circuit is distributed very widely, run in the open for a long time, so will often be influenced by surrounding environment and nature change, thus make various troubles will take place in operation in the impracticable circuit. Count according to the running situation over the years, are mostly seasonal troubles in various troubles.
An impracticable circuit covers the reason of the ice
Impracticable circuit it covers ice to be in early winter and early spring season temperature until – about 5 ℃ ,Or in the weather that the snowfall or sleet accompanies each other, ice, frost will be mixed with wet snow at wire, lightning conductor, insulator bunch in the impracticable circuit,etc. This is a durable and close transparent or semitransparent ice sheet of one layer, the reason on the ice sheet of taking shape and precededding, because adhere to the water droplet on the nature object, when dropping in temperature, these water droplets condense into ice, and form the thicker.
Will tie a layer of hoar frost on the surface of the wire too, present and ice dreg properties sometimes, its weight ratio is solid to cover the ice much lighter, but its thickness is much larger. Generally when there is a large amount of moisture and breezy in the airing, it is aptest to form the flute.
When the wet snow lands, the wet thunder is glued on the wire on one hand, while will soak the frozen wood, make the ice sheet thicker and thicker, it is the thickest can reach above 10cm.
When the wind direction is parallel to circuit, cover the ellipse in the section of the ice; When the wind direction is transverse to circuit, the section which covers the ice takes the form of fan, namely on a side of the wire; When it is calm, it is an even layer to cover the ice.
In addition, it also relates to the fact that the circuit is moved towards to cover the ice, the circuit of passing the intersection of the cold, hot air, it is more serious to cover the ice. It is different to cover the time that the ice stays at the wire or insulator, reach the level mainly decided by the temperature and size of the wind-force, it is several hours short, reaches a few days long.
2 accidents happening because of covering the ice
Wire and lightning conductor it covers ice to be very thick sometimes, will exceed the loading stipulated while designing the circuit when being serious. If wire, lightning conductor still accompany the gale while covering the ice, its loading should increase even more, this may cause the wire or lightning conductor to break, make gold utensil and insulator bunch destroy, even make the pole tower damage. Especially the sector covers the ice, it can make the wire turn back, so threaten gold utensil and insulator bunch biggest. It has the following aspects to ice the accident that the common circuit is covered:
1The pole tower because covers the ice and damages
It is generally because a certain case of wire pole towers of straight line break. At this moment, because the tape covers the wire of the ice and forms larger tension in the other side of this pole of towers, make the pole tower receive too big loading, the reason causes and pours the pole or accident of the tower;
2The wire covers and ices the accident
If the wire is arranged on the pole tower vertically, when the ones that and take shelter from the thunder in the wire on the line have part that is lossed to cover the ice, because of the loading irregularity of every wire, will make the wire send and all jump the phenomenon, thus make the wire collide, cause the short circuit trouble;
3It causes the accident that the distance per shelf of the circuit covers and ices the inequality
Because covering the unequal reason of ice in the distance per shelf of the circuit, will make the arc in the distance per shelf hang down and take place very great change. There is wire very big loading in shelf distance of covering the ice seriously, special envoy’s wire is flagging seriously, so that make the overhead distance of the wire reduce to very dangerous intensity sometimes, therefore the accident happens;
4The insulator bunch covers and ices the accident
Though the weight that the thickness of ice sheet increases is not big at the insulator, have reduced the insulating level of bunch of the insulator, will cause, flash, hold the intersection of earthing and accident in place with a net, burn out insulator, very much serious even consequence its.
3 prevention and elimination measure which cover the ice
In order to prevent covering the trouble that the ice causes, while designing the pole tower, should consider because of covering the extra loading that the ice forms. The area to often covering the ice seriously, erect the circuit able to bear the ice covering type, the the intersection of pole and tower of circuit general pole old in mechanical intensity of tower, shelf distance shorter, the wire tension is relatively small. For avoid, touch line, wire should adopt whom competence arrange, put method, should also strengthen wire and distance between the lightning conductor appropriate.
While choosing the circuit route, should pay attention to avoiding the intersection of the cold, hot air. But is covering very serious area of ice, above-mentioned measures are not still enough, it can still be caused and destroyed the accident in the circuit to cover the ice. So, produce the situation of paying attention to ice in must observe the wire in operationing, and take the appropriate measure to dispel. The ones that dispelled on the wire covered the ice, there is electric current that fuses France and machinery and hits the law down.
3.1 electric current fuses the law
The method, strengthen the intersection of load and electric current mainly or electric current come, heat wire, make it fuse and fall not to cover the ice with short out, achieve the goal of getting rid of the ice. The concrete method is the following 3: Increase the load electric current of circuit in operation way which changes the power network; Short out to stand up circuit and the intersection of system and disconnection the intersection of one end and three-phase of circuit, supply comes to short out in the electric current with the adhoc voltage transformer or generator at another end.
When heating the method of the wire by increasing the load electric current of circuit, should cover ice, begin, strengthen the electric current of load promptly initial stage not forming, as the precautionary measures. But this kind of method will make the voltage of the circuit reduce, increase the electric energy to loss, so can’t use for a long time. , get the essential apparatus ready in the Huaihe River, its capacity should be calculated in advance, make it can meet the request of melting ice.
Before melting the ice, should pay attention to checking for a long time the system of the electric current formed line and apparatus through shorting out. The electric current you had better not use the power plant and earthing net of the transformer substation while melting the ice by shorting out, and adopt the single earthing device and so as to avoid the danger. Should send people to the circuit to observe the melting course which cover the ice while using and shorting out electric current 镕’s ice, when covering the ice has already begun to loss from wiring, should cut off and melt and ice the electric current immediately, otherwise as time goes by, will make the wire overheated, should especially pay attention to the junction of the wire. Under the general apparatus condition, it is very difficult to realize that the electric current melts and ices the law, so, except in the heavy ice formation, it is not high to in fact use value.
3.2 machinery, except icing the law
Machinery gets rid of the ice and mainly adopts the following several kinds method:
1Guide’s line or lightning conductor throws the short stick, break and cover the ice, enable its pull-away from the ground. Can go on, put, pay special attention to, make it loss not to cover the ice with wooden pole or bamboo pole. If it is difficult to lose electrical power in circuit and beat and cover the ice with insulating pole;
2Make one set of snares on the wire with the wood, and arrange the wire Laszo with the rope, can dispel and cover the ice;
3Get rid of the ice through the way that the coaster type gets rid of the ice device.
In a word, it is more primitive that machinery gets rid of and ices the law, every area of design to get rid of the ice device is different too, its kind is numerous. Machinery gets rid of and ices the main shortcoming of the law, must lose electrical power and go on, time-consuming, strenuous. Adopt machinery to get rid of while icing the law, must guarantee wire and lightning conductor damage any machinery.
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Our factory is devoted to in recent years ” Energy-conservation, environmental protection ” Construction with operation. Project this adopt also water supplement water as circulating water in the city, gray water utilization slaked lime punishes the craft, the solid offal produced is used as desulphurization raw materials, has accomplished comprehensive utilization, turn waste into wealth, it is one of the most modernized power plants in environment protecting mode of China at present. The way that has passed by over the past two years proves, our step is sturdy, by the look of business performance, it is can proud in we say by one of the best one at present we are China.
Standardized management level of a promotion
Normal enterprises might not be outstanding, but outstanding enterprises are all norms. The norm is called the rule too, include two respects, one is procedure, one is the system. The procedure is used for instructing the staff how to do the thing correctly, what should be done, how to do; System used for tell thing that staff shouldn’t do whether including what about does it it is wrong to make. Standardizing management has two purposes: First, control and manage the risk, second, raise the efficiency of management. EAM that we use now produce the management level, raise first step for unit in this respect, the information-based platform adds the modernized tool and combines the modernization and manages the promotion that the thought has brought the management level.
2 purposes to achieve energy-conserving emission reduction through the little index contest
In order to more greatly give play to the efficiency of the aircrew, our unit has carried on the contest of the little index, , through the contest, we make the aircrew run in optimum cases, make every index of this aircrew near to the index of the advanced aircrew.
3 reduces the power consuming rate of the apparatus through technological transformation.
3.1 China grout utilize before technology transform. The mud that the normal water produced, because is alkaline, can only act as waste disposal, not only has produced pollution, having also increased the transportation cost of the company, we will hit the grout to support the desulphurization system to utilize through technological transformation, can with corrupt to manage pollution, turn waste into wealth, reduce pollution, reduce the intersection of desulphurization and consumption of lime stone also, thus create millions of value, benefit and image of the great improvement company every year.
3.2 The transformation of electric dust removal, the electric dust removal system is a power consumptive rich and influential family of the power plant, theory analysis and practice are found, under running in the way conventionally, the electric energy utilization efficiency of electric dust removal is very low, there are very large spaces in the reducing energy consumption of electric dust removal.
Our unit directs against a stove of energy-conserving transfermation projects of electric dust removal of ##, from beginning to investigate, plan, finish transforming the scheme, technological agreement, setting up the application to sign with the contract only in over half of a month, having finished a stove of energy-conserving technological transformation of electric dust removal system of ## tentatively, a stove of energy-conserving efficiency of electric dust removal system of ## is tested after finishing again one month later. The test result shows, on the premise of guaranteeing the dust removal result, the energy-conserving way in which the pulse supplies power runs at present, 77% of energy-conserving efficiency of the high-pressure electric field, electric dust removal comprehensive energy-conserving efficiency 50.6% include other fixed load such as lossing, heater, shaking making, air-introduced machine MCC, air compressor MCC, gasification air blower, illumination of the voltage transformer . About 12,000 degrees of electricity of energy-conservation every day, save the electric rate of about 4,000 yuan every day, this transformation invests 100,000 yuan, it is estimated that retracts investment in 25 days, save about 1,200,000 yuan of electric rate every year.
3.3 Congeal the intersection of pump and transformation of frequency conversion, frequency conversion regulate have, have, add, transfer the intersection of difference and loss to, with high efficiency adjustment range wide outputting the intersection of characteristic and characteristic fine, easy to use, correspondent to low load and frequently opened the occasion stopped, adopt the technology of frequency conversion, can achieve the goal of economizing on electricity and protecting the electrical machinery. Technical support department has carried on a frequency conversion transformation of congealing the pump to work in aircrew’s light maintenance. Therefore the energy-conserving result is obvious after frequency conversion is transformed, it is expected to charge the cost in year.
3.4 Implementation of ignition of little oil, little oil person who initiate combustion decorate position the intersection of wall and four burning device and four back wall person who burn 8 person who burn make into, design make have concurrently specially altogether only before the person who burn according to the lowest floor Short of the oil and light a fire the main burning device of the function. Remove some once dryers of the burning device and elbow of tuber pipe close to the burning device place section of once originally ,Can replace for being purpose-built the little oil initiating combustion devices ignited in grades in realization keep the spout of the burning device originally and does not change ,Deserve the burning device taking the elbow of right angle, the elbow is the pottery of inside lining. It is the direct current to enter the powder way, other once tuber pipe will not do any change. Do not change any and have wind system two times now to keep its characteristic of swirl. Because enter the powder way for the direct-flow way and adopt many stages to burn, so each grade burns powder of wind of once between tube and plays a role in the angry membrane is cooled after arrivinging, thus make person who burn to be difficult to marry burntly while being warm while being ultra.
4 takes the effective measure, the aircrew runs optimally
4.1 Optimization operation of the machine for rubbing coal. Our factory adopts our company to make powder system and belong to and press the blowing type directly. It is 500m3 original coal scuttles that each boiler disposes 8 pieces of volume. The coal feeder constructs EG2490 gravimetric coal feeders that electric apparatus limited company produces in Shenyang, the machine for rubbing coal adopts BBD-4360 type pair that the technology that the factory of heavy engineering of Shanghai introduces French ALSTOM produces and enters pair and goes out of the machine for rubbing coal of steel ball, make powder system and is made up of a machine for rubbing coal and two coal feeders each set, each boiler allocates four sets and makes powder system. Under the normal situation, we adopt three or four to rub and run, because the aircrew adjusts the peak, at the time of late night, we mix the coal situation according to the fuel under guaranteeing the safe situation, two are rubed and run while adopting, the specified electric current 197A of the machine for rubbing coal of our aircrew, the electric current of the machine for rubbing coal is about 160A at the time of normal running, in this way, can reduce the factory and use the electricity, can guarantee the main fact, warm stability of hotter vapour too.
4.2 Mix the coal optimally. We utilize pair to enter one pair of characteristics which go out of two coal feeders of machine for rubbing coal, mix the coal through dividing the storehouse, realize mixing burning in a large amount of local anthracite, inferior coal,etc., so can solve and divide the adverse effect that the coal produces on the platform. When one is rubed to burn inferior coal completely, the burning state deterioration of this floor will produce the influence greatly in burning, may cause the fire extinguishing of the boiler when being serious. But divided on the storehouse the coal has well solved this problemmed, that on a coal feeder is the local anthracite, inferior coal at ordinary times, high the intersection of calorific value and high the intersection of train and coal of volatile matter at the sets of coal feeder, in this way can can regulate to mix the coal each two coal feeders rubed in time through power that fire examine another, improve the burning situation of this floor, the security that the great improvement aircrew runs. Only the mixing burning the profit that can create several ten million as the company with every year of coal of car.
4.3 The standardization is operated, strengthen the staff’s technical training. In order to standardize operation, the generating electricity department specially makes detailed operation card, make operation standardized, minimize the fault, avoid because misoperation causes the damage of not stopping and personnel’s apparatus of the aircrew. While utilizing aircrew’s great light maintenance, organize personnel to participate in the training of the artificial machine, improve the holding and doing competence, the crash handling level of personnel improving of all staff, there is very great help on running.
The energy is the important material base of the social development, the realization of the Four Modernizations of China and growth of national economy, depend on supply and valid use of the energy to a great extent. What the 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China is put forward wants ” Pay attention to power saving and raw materials, raise resource utilization efficiencies ” Put forward with the eighth four meetings in the People’s University ” Insist on saving and developing and developing simultaneously, put saving in the first place, raise resource utilization efficiencies ” Policy last energy conservation determination status,point out direction. Current situation situation: University’s electric rate expenses runs a school to take larger proportion in the costs in the school. As the university in the past few years expands and employs continuously, the question of setting up etc. is outstanding day by day that the voltage transformer supports the control, pipeline. The article puts forward some methods and measures of economizing on electricity to some problems existing.
Power consuming load characteristic of a university
The university is roughly made up of three parts with the electricity, namely the teaching, electricity for scienticific purposes, produce capital construction and use the electricity, life uses the electricity; Roughly used the electricity about 52% by motive force according to the type of its load Use the electricity about 48% with the illumination Two parts form; Have no power consumption of work roughly by the voltage transformer account for 35% according to it ,Reaction motor account for 25% ,Fluorescent lamp ballast and other account for 25% , circuit account for 15% Wait for four parts to form. The article is according to the investigation data analysis of the power consuming load of this school: Load changes the range big, the peak valley is relatively obvious. But there are only about 62% in load rate in the whole year, obviously the utilization ratio of the apparatus is relatively low, especially utilization ratios of the voltage transformer are only about 40%. So, university’s power consuming load shows the characteristic: Load rate is not high; The utilization rate of equipment and installations is low; The low ebb section is very obvious on winter vacation and summer vacation; Lighting load about 50%.
2 is designed rationally, improve and support distribution facilities, reduce and loss
2.1 adjusts user’s load, enable the economical operation of the voltage transformer
The capital equipment that the voltage transformer runs as the power system, in the course of varying the voltage and transmitting the power, produce the active power to loss and loss with the inactive power by oneself. Active power and inactive power of the voltage transformer loss and relate to technological characteristic of the voltage transformer again, while produced the non-linear change, the large percentage that line loss accounts for in the electric wire netting of loss of the voltage transformer with change of load, especially the proportion taken at the time of light load is larger. The statistics show,the voltage transformer one loss in in there last 2%-3% is line loss in being low-voltage for electric wire netting,certain amounts of voltage transformers that be run until year light will be existed at electric wire netting, so-called ” The big horse draws the car ” Phenomenon,to lasting energy-conservation unfavorable,so, must follow by technical parameters relevant of voltage transformer, the way, strengthen the operation management of the voltage transformer through choosing to run rationally, fully utilize the existing apparatus condition, in order to achieve the goal of saving the electric energy.
2.2 has no work to compensate compensate nearby to strengthen
Having no work to adopt can improve the power factor to compensate, fully excavate the potentiality that the apparatus transports the power, one is with little investment, the energy-conserving measure producing effects fast. It is mainly suitable for load being steady to compensate technology in situ, it is such as air blower, water pump that the irreversible asynchronous motor larger in capacity is compensated ,Various other occasions still mainly adopt centralized compensation technology.
The commonly used one has no work to compensate the way to include in the electric wire netting: The bus bar is installed concentratedly to connect the condenser bank in parallel in the transformer substation; Disperse and install connecting the condenser bank in parallel in level pigeonholes the distribution line; Reject and install connecting the compensation condenser in parallel in distribution low-voltage side and user’s distribution of the workshop of voltage transformer; Installation connects condenser,etc. in parallel at single motor.
While confirming that there is no work to pay for the capacity, should pay attention to the following two points: Avoid compensating in light load, have no work to cause the power to loss and increase to give, also uneconomical. The higher the power factor is, it will diminished that every exhausted compensation capacity a thousand reduces the function lossed, generally, bring 0 up to the intersection of power and factor, 95 the reasonable compensation. There is no rational disposition that work compensates the apparatus in the electric wire netting, in very close relations with the power supply voltage quality of the electric wire netting.
2.3 reduces the distribution line to loss
Important index of economical operation that the circuit the distribution line operates. Reducing the meritorious loss of Shangdi of distribution line can save a considerable amount of ground electric energy; And reduce the inactive power on the distribution line, can improve the power factor of supporting the distribution network, reduce the electric current of load, thus improve voltage quality. A lot of districts of old school, with the increase of electric load, have not reelected technology to its distribution line in right time, thus cause the non- economic state of distribution line to run, a large number of circuit electric energy takes place to loss. Designing the new school area, transform the zone time of old school, should follow the economic electric current density, confirm the wire of distribution and section of the cable, thus reduce the line loss effectively.
3 adopts advanced technology and energy-conserving products
Select energy-conserving electric apparatus component and lamps and lanterns for use. It is an incandescent lamp, mercury vapor lamp that the illumination is adopted at night such as street lamp and public occasion, can use high-efficient light source and energy-efficient lamps and lanterns instead, can save 50% of the electric energy. The efficiency of the electric attachment is very important too to energy-conservation, the quality of the electronic rectifier is different at present, and the energy-conserving result of energy-efficient rectifier is very good. In addition, in economizing on electricity, can enable the sun to generate electricity, abroad, some places of China, the photoelectric curtain wall of solar energy, photoelectric roof, solar energy street lamp have already got effective use, the university can also introduce the solar energy and employ this kind of apparatus actively.
Adopt the technology of frequency conversion to reduce the electrical machinery, air conditioner and use the electricity. Generally all there are a fairly large number of electrical machineries such as dining room, pump house, boiler room in the university, these electrical machineries are mostly air blowers, water pump load, can adopt frequency conversion to adjust speed technology, in addition should also proceed from the reality and choose the electrical machinery of the suitable capacity, reduce light year and empty load running time, guarantee the electrical machinery measure such as being basically normal of power voltage.
4 concludes the speech
As to some other public places such as the university fitted with two voltage transformers, should combine the actual load situation according to the existing technical parameter of the voltage transformer, chosen the way of running of the rational voltage transformer, can realize the economical operation of the voltage transformer, the active power of reducing the voltage transformer losses; Having no work to adopt can improve the power factor to compensate, one is with little investment, the energy-conserving measure producing effects fast. Connect the principle of the compensation condenser simple, easy to use, runs economically in parallel, investment is provincial, can divide into groups and throw and cut and guarantee qualification rate of the voltage and reasonable power factor. In a word, there are many technological measures that the university economizes on electricity, should be trying to find out constantly in practice, combining university’s power consuming characteristic to push away progressively constantly. Meanwhile, because economize on electricity technological measure has both trade characteristic and administrative problems of management, so must also strengthen the work of organization leadership, so, the technological measure that the university economizes on electricity is popularized having a substance.
Wu Feng. Existing problem of energy saving management of the university and countermeasure are studied [J ]. Economic research guide, 2010, 3 : 200-201
With the improvement of the voltage of the electric wire netting, the traditional electromagnetism type mutual inductor has already exposed the weakness not in conformity with it gradually. The shortcoming of the electromagnetic type mutual inductor is mainly as follows, the volume is large, manufacturing process is complicated, the intersection of fabrication cost and high insulating difficult dynamic range can’t measure with the intersection of protection and the intersection of apparatus and interface,etc. with computer directly while being little apt to produce ferromagnetic resonance, the intersection of output and signal of mutual inductor. In order to adapt to the development of the power system, need a new kind of electric mutual inductors to replace traditional CT and PT urgently, so the electron type mutual inductor has been produced. The electronic mutual inductor is a general name of the new mutual inductor based on photoelectric technology and electronic technology. Compared with traditional mutual inductor, electron mutual inductor have insulating simple in construction, bandwidth, dynamic the intersection of range and large, the intersection of size and little, the intersection of weight and light, the intersection of security and a great deal of advantage such as being kind frequently, it is the mutual inductor development and inexorable trend of digitized development of power system in future.
On the other hand, as the research of the electron type mutual inductor was developed, the electron type mutual inductor has already got application in the transformer substation, so put forward the new requirement for relay protection and measurement instrument of the system two times. The electron type application in the transformer substation of mutual inductor, has driven relay protection and measured the relevant research of the instrument, have with electron the intersection of mutual inductor and relay protection of interface and measure research of instrument too will promote electron application of mutual inductor and push into digitization of transformer substation enter One. The electron type mutual inductors have all already been employed in system two times of the high-pressure electric wire netting such as relay protection, and the research of corresponding measurement instrument is also in the blank. Multi-functional electric appearance in interface of the electronic mutual inductor that a new kind of brings that this text designs on the basis of measuring the instrument in tradition.
A hardware circuit is designed
Electric the intersection of hardware and circuit of instrument by the intersection of power and circuit, measure circuit, digital interface, MCU and other the intersection of 5 circuit and part, make up. The hardware structure is shown as in Fig. 1.
Hardware circuit of Fig. 1
Fig.1 Hardware circuit
The main index of performance of the illustrated instrument of Fig. 1:
Precision grade: O.5 grade; Mark and call input: Electric current l- 5 A, voltage 100 V/220 v/380 V; Measure the frequency: 50 Hz
A high-pressure motor frequency conversion adjusts the energy-conserving meaning of the speed
The total power consumption of different motors in China accounts for more than 60% of electric consumption of China’s total consumption. According to the regulation of China’s design specification, above 200kW motor proposes adopting the high-pressure motor. China’s high-pressure motor power consumption accounts for 60% of motor power consumption, the energy-conserving potentiality about 80 billionkwh of frequency conversion. The high-pressure motor contrasts with low-voltage motor, quantity the platform is counted The proportion is about l: 4,Capacity power The proportion is about 3: 2. At present, the electric consumption of total consumption has already broken through 2,500 billionkWh every year in China, such as accounting for 60% of the electric consumption of China’s total consumption according to the total power consumption of the motor, it is high-pressure account for power consumption of motor 60% of motor power consumption, can transforming rate temporary according to 30%, microcosmic platforms single Economize on electricity rate predict the intersection of China and macroscopic economize on electricity year ability can reach according to 30% only: 2,500 billionkWh * 60% X60% * 30% * 30% =81 billionkwh, newly builds 1 millionkw aircrew, runs in 16 large-scale power plants of 5000h every year in other words, approach the annual total generation of power station of Sanxia. The total rate of electricity, like calculating according to average 0.5 yuan / kwh. The Chinese macroscopic economizes on electricity every year value can be reached: 0.5 yuan / kWhx 81 billionkWh =40,500 million yuan. The frequency conversion of the high-pressure motor adjusts the technology of economizing on electricity rapidly, has already become in China’s power-saving technology measure ” The most important thing ” .
2 and two kinds of frequency conversion to the high-pressure motor adjust the technological route of the speed
The high-pressure motor insulating grade is high, it is both advantage and a shortcoming. Because the insulating material has occupied some spaces very much of the unshakable in one’s determination trough of motor stator, as to the use space limiting the conductor. In order to reach necessary rated power, certainly will strengthen the space of trough the sectional area of the window ,Usually choose the relatively large size machine seat, in order to increase the window sectional area of unshakable in one’s determination trough; Or choose but the iron core of longer serial number with the Seat No., reduce one circle of numbers of coil by increasing sectional area of unshakable in one’s determination yoke portion, the high pressure thick for swelling is insulating to reserve enough spaces. Cost causing the rated power of about 10%- 25% of loss to step up as the motor. Moreover, the higher the motor specified voltage is, the higher the insulating grade is, the larger the Seat No. or unshakable in one’s determination length serial number is, the material dawdles the more greatly, the lower efficiency is, the power factor is also low, the larger energy consumption is, the higher the fabrication cost is, do not pay attention to and run the uneconomical inborn shortcoming in the platform as structure.
So transfer speed, form two technological routes too around high-pressure the intersection of motor and frequency conversion. First, represented by high-pressure frequency conversion, the expensive and risky technological route of frequency conversion on the basis of the high-pressure motor of poor efficiency; This patent adopts another route, dilate the low reliable frequency conversion technology with high costs of proposing the result on the basis of the high-pressure motor.
3 increases cellar type high
The report of comprehensive dispatch from foreign news agency, it is magnitude 7.2 on the Richter scale that the geological exploration administration of U.S.A. measures this magnitude before this. Standardize time at 37 past 22 at 25th night 2012 years 37 past 6 on March 26 in Greenwich The dark area of fields lying fallow in rotation 35.198
The number of visits: Time
Comprehensive the intersection of dispatch from foreign news agency and report, will it be will it be 37 past 22 25th night 2012 year such as standard time such as Greenwich prevent from, may take place tsunami, residents withdraw to the area with higher terrain along already calling upon in the authorities. Residents claim, this earthquake probably lasts one minute.
Associated Press claims, this earthquake causes some city electricity to cut off, people are busy with running out of the skyscraper, it is even paralysed that the communication is too busy.
There is not this earthquake that cause the casualties or great and lost report of property at present.